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Alprentice ‘Bunchy’ Carter ‘would have rode with Nat Turner

by Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali

“If Bunchy had been on the same plantation as Nat Turner, you can believe he would have rode with Nat Turner. That’s the type of person Bunchy was.” – Kumasi

Black Panther Party Deputy Minister of Defense Bunchy Carter
Black Panther Party Deputy Minister of Defense Bunchy Carter

Oct. 12 is the birthday of one of the most talented and promising young men martyred in the massive state repression against the Black Panther Party for Self Defense.

NBC television has resurrected Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter with a series called “Aquarius.” The imperialist media has brought back both Carter and Charles Manson. Carter was an iconic Black revolutionary from Los Angeles. Manson was a cold-blooded serial killer who led the Manson Family that murdered many in California.

Somehow Hollyweird has united these two polar opposites for television. It is not that weird when we understand that these forces are part of the state whose job it is to keep Africa, Africans and all oppressed people confused.

Gerald Horne, who wrote the volume, “Confronting Black Jacobins: The U.S., the Haitian Revolution and the Origins of the Dominican Republic,” taught Carter’s daughter Danon at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and has written extensively on Hollywood. Horne says Hollywood has done a number on Africans in America from “Birth of a Nation” to “Gone with the Wind,” depicting Black women as mammies, servants and sex objects.

Linden Beckford Jr., a graduate of Grambling University, is currently writing a biography of Carter.

Carter is almost forgotten

Unlike Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and George Jackson, Carter has almost been forgotten from the history of Africans in America except for diehards.

Bunchy Carter was a leader of the very strong and influential Black Panther Party in Los Angeles.
Bunchy Carter was a leader of the very strong and influential Black Panther Party in Los Angeles.

Yes, the Fugees – Wyclef Jean, Lauryn Hill and Pras Michel – mention Carter on the 1996 soundtrack film “When We Were Kings” about the famous “Rumble in the Jungle” heavyweight championship match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman, which took place in 1974. And yes, M-1 and stic man of dead prez did “B.I.G. Respect,” a song on their mixtape, “Turn off the Radio,” that mentions Carter. But that is about it.

Who were Carter and John Huggins and why are they important for the 21st century? Carter, then 26 (born Oct. 12, 1942), was assassinated on Jan. 17, 1969, along with John Huggins, 23 (born Feb. 11, 1945), in a Campbell Hall classroom at UCLA in Los Angeles.

The team of Carter and Huggins are interesting for several reasons. Number one, Carter was born in Louisiana but was made in Los Angeles. Huggins was born on the other side of the country in New Haven, Connecticut. Number two, Carter was a product of the Black proletariat while Huggins was from the Black middle class.

One of Huggins’ aunts, Constance Baker Motley (Sept. 14, 1921 – Sept. 28, 2005) was an African born in America whose parents hailed from Nevis in the Caribbean. She was a lawyer, judge, state senator and borough president of Manhattan, New York City. Huggins committed class suicide and he and Carter had no problem working together.

Bunchy Carter, a loving and fearless leader
Bunchy Carter, a loving and fearless leader

It is a tragic coincidence in history that eight years before Carter and Huggins joined the ancestors, Patrice Emery Lumumba, the first democratically elected president of the Congo, Joseph Okito, vice president of the Senate, and Maurice Mpolo, sports and youth minister, were killed in the Congo by an unholy alliance of the CIA, Belgian imperialism and other agents of imperialism headed by Mobuto Sese Seko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, aka Col. Joseph Mobuto, on Jan. 17, 1961.

Carter and Huggins were gunned down by members of the cultural nationalist US Organization. An FBI memo dated Nov. 29, 1968, described a letter that the Los Angeles FBI office intended to mail to the Black Panther Party office.

This letter, which was made to appear as if it had come from the US Organization, described fictitious plans by US to ambush BPP members. The FBI memo stated, “It is hoped this counterintelligence measure will result in an ‘US’ and BPP vendetta.”

Many feel that the leader of US, Ron Karenga, was working for the other side. An article in the Wall Street Journal described Karenga as a thriving businessman, specializing in gas stations, who maintained close ties to Eastern Rockefeller family and LA’s mayor.

Michael Newton pointed out in the volume, “Bitter Grain: Huey P. Newton and the Black Panther Party,” a Wall Street Journal article which reported: “A few weeks after the assassination of Martin Luther King … Mr. Karenga slipped into Sacramento for a private chat with Gov. Reagan, at the governor’s request. The Black nationalist also met clandestinely with Los Angeles police chief Thomas Reddin after Mr. King was killed.”

We need some stronger stuff

At that moment in history, many cultural nationalists maintained that the cultural revolution must take place before a political one could proceed. Huey P. Newton, the co-founder of the Black Panther Party, countered with the view: “We believe that culture itself will not liberate us. We’re going to need some stronger stuff.”

The Black Panther Party led by Newton and Bobby Seale was like the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC). It was an anti-imperialist alliance; many like Carter embraced revolutionary nationalism while others like Newton, George Jackson and Fred Hampton took a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist (MLM) position. Hampton openly said he was fighting for socialism leading to communism.

Carter named Geronimo

In its Feb. 17, 1969, edition, The Black Panther newspaper pays tribute to assassinated leaders Bunchy Carter and John Huggins. Click to enlarge.
In its Feb. 17, 1969, edition, The Black Panther newspaper pays tribute to assassinated leaders Bunchy Carter and John Huggins. Click to enlarge.

Carter was a firm supporter of the Native American struggle. It was Carter who changed Elmer Pratt into Geronimo ji-Jaga Pratt (Sept. 13, 1947 – June 2, 2011) after the great Native American warrior Geronimo, “the one who yawns” (June 1829 – Feb. 17, 1909) was a prominent Apache leader who fought against Mexico and Arizona for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.

Geronimo replaced Carter as the deputy minister of defense of the Southern California Chapter of the BPP after Carter was taken out. Carter left a memo saying his wish was for Geronimo to replace him.

Carter was never known as an anti-Communist. Before joining the Black Panther Party, Carter was recruited by Raymond “Maasi” Hewitt to a Maoist study group called the Red Guard. I was a part of the same group; however, Carter came in after I left Los Angeles.

Carter was influenced by Jean-Jacques Dessalines of Haiti and Dedan Kimathi of the Land and Freedom Army, the so-called Mau Mau. The Los Angeles Chapter under Bunchy’s leadership required that members take the Mau Mau Oath. Here is the Mau Mau Oath:

“I speak the truth and vow before God / And before this movement, / The movement of Unity, / The Unity which is put to the test, / The Unity that is mocked with the name of ‘Mau Mau,’ / That I shall go forward to fight for the land, / The lands of Kirinyaga that we cultivated, / The lands which were taken by the Europeans, / And if I fail to do this, / May this oath kill me, / May this seven kill me, / May this meat kill me.”

Days at Los Angeles City College

Carter and a small segment of people who lived in my area of Los Angeles had an international world view. He was a legendary figure in my neighborhood. After he was released from prison, he attended Los Angeles City College. Carter was my senior and I didn’t meet him until he was released from jail.

He and others, like Sigidi Abdullah and his S.O.S Band, “Take Your Time (Do It Right)”; Rhongea Southern, now Daar Malik El-Bey, who worked closely with Abdullah; Earl Randall, who went on to work with Willie Mitchell at Hi Records and wrote Al Green’s “God Bless Our Love”; Fred Goree, who became Masai Karega Kenyatta and a DJ on WCHB 1440AM in Detroit, went to LACC at the same time.

Sigidi told me that Carter asked him to organize a talent show at LACC. I remember singing the Spinners’ “I’ll Always Love You” at this event. El-Bey was my guitarist.

ltr-from-ericka-huggins-to-john-huggins-before-his-assassination-1969-cy-its-about-time-bpp-archives

Carter’s political consciousness was raised before he joined the Black Panther Party. Kumasi, who Huey P. Newton asked to replace Carter as the leader of the Southern California Chapter of the BPP, talked to me about the LA legend.

Says Kumasi: “When Malcolm X first came to Los Angeles, he built the first outpost right there in our neighborhood. The Mosque (Temple 27) itself was close to us and all of us had visited the Mosque. As a matter of fact, Bunchy and many of the Renegade Slausons (Bunchy had his own set of Slausons inside the Slausons) were the first youth Fruit of Islam (FOI) in LA. Carter was only 15 years old at that moment in history.

Carter was a 20th century renaissance man. He was great at many things and was a poet and a singer. Elaine Brown has written that many Panthers sang together: “John (Huggins) sang bass to my contralto and Bunchy’s falsetto.”

Brown pointed out in her autobiography, “A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story,” how the trio used to sing the Young Hearts’ “I’ve Got Love for My Baby.” He was also a great dancer. David Hilliard maintains that if it were not for racism, Carter may have become an Olympic swimmer.

Brown says while all this is true, Carter was first and foremost a revolutionary. This is extraordinary if you consider that Carter suffered a childhood bout of polio and moved to South Central LA, where his mother, Nola Carter, enrolled him in a “therapeutic” dance class.

Carter’s Louisiana-born mother is still in the land of the living at the time of this writing. She is almost a century old and has lost two sons: Arthur Morris, Carter’s older step brother, acted as Carter’s bodyguard and was the first member of the BPP to lose his life. He was killed in March of 1968. Little Bobby Hutton, who was influenced by Carter, was killed on April 6, 1968. Her youngest son, Kenneth Fati Carter, is currently locked down in Corcoran State Prison in California.

Caffee Greene, mother of Raymond Nat Turner, Black Agenda Report’s poet-in-residence, hired Carter to work at the Teen Post in Los Angeles. Greene first hired Raymond “Masai” Hewitt, who was replaced by Carter. It was at the Teen Post that I first heard Eldridge Cleaver speak. Cleaver and Carter were both Nation of Islam ministers in prison.

The Afrikan Students Union at UCLA keeps alive the memory of Black Panther leaders Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter and John Huggins with an annual commemorative gathering in Campbell Hall Classroom 1201, where they were gunned down, on the anniversary of their assassination on Jan. 17, 1969. At the 2014 gathering, panel member Ericka Huggins, also a leader in the Black Panther Party and widow of the late John Huggins, encouraged them to “make a portal for students way younger than you to be here … Use the skills the university has given you and turn them toward your community … We are all standing on someone’s shoulders; imagine someone is standing on yours.” – Photo: Afrikan Students Union
The Afrikan Students Union at UCLA keeps alive the memory of Black Panther leaders Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter and John Huggins with an annual commemorative gathering in Campbell Hall Classroom 1201, where they were gunned down, on the anniversary of their assassination on Jan. 17, 1969. At the 2014 gathering, panel member Ericka Huggins, also a leader in the Black Panther Party and widow of the late John Huggins, encouraged them to “make a portal for students way younger than you to be here … Use the skills the university has given you and turn them toward your community … We are all standing on someone’s shoulders; imagine someone is standing on yours.” – Photo: Afrikan Students Union

Turner saw the cultural side of Carter: “Yeah, I heard Bunchy sing Stevie’s ‘I’m Wondering’ and ‘I Was Made to Love Her,’ and I used to hear Tommy (Lewis) play piano at the Teen Post my mom directed. … It was also fun to watch Bunchy dance – Philly Dog, Jerk and Twine … a lil’ ‘Bitter Dog’ with the Philly Dog every once in a while … ‘Bebop Santa from the Cool North Pole’ and ‘Black Mother’ were also great to hear.” Tommy Lewis, Robert Lawrence and Steve Bartholomew were murdered by the Los Angeles police at a service station on Aug. 25, 1968.

Kumasi opines that Carter and George Jackson were like Henri Christophe and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. While they were well-versed in history, revolutionary theory and current events, both were soldiers ready to take to the battlefield. Carter made a contribution to Africa, Africans and oppressed humanity. We should remember him every Oct. 12.

Post script

In his Executive Order No. 1, “The Correct Handling of Differences Between Black Organizations,” issued in 1968, Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, then the deputy minister of defense of the Southern California Chapter at Los Angeles of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, wrote: “Let this be heard: The Black Panther Party must never be the enemy of the people. The Black Panther Party must never put itself in that other organizations can make them seem to be the enemy of Black People …

“History will show we have the correct analysis of the problem. The people will relate to the party that relates to them. Therefore, we must continue to relate to the people. Therefore, we do not get into squabbles with other Black organizations; we do not have time for this when engaging in revolution. Let this be done.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. In the 1960s, Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split, he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally, he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados) and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music, a radio show for Uhuru Radio, and writes a column, Diasporic Music, for The Burning Spear newspaper. For more information, contact him at norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

Huey P. Newton, the Canadian Connection

By Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

Huey P. Newton was murdered 31 years ago in Oakland, California during the month of August. Because Black freedom fighters like George and Jonathan Jackson, Khatari Gaulden and others lost their lives during this month, revolutionaries inside the California prison system have deemed it Black August.
It is August 22, 1989 at about 8:30 a.m. the late Gwen Johnston, the co-owner of Third World Books and Crafts (Toronto’s first African Canadian owned bookstore) phones me. The news is shocking, dreadful even. Mrs.Johnston is in tears stating, “Otis they have killed Huey”.
Mrs. Johnston and her husband Lennie were huge supporters of Newton, the Black Panther Party and the struggle for African and human liberation.
When Newton returned to the United States after his exile inrevolutionary Cuba in 1977 he first landed in Toronto. He was detained in Brampton, Ontario and was represented by the progressive Euro-Canadian lawyer, Paul Copeland. Toronto’s African community supported Newton and the Panthers had several chapters in this county.
Toronto’s African community was represented by Owen Sankara Leach, Lennox Farrell, the late Sharona Hall, Mitch Holder, Bryan Hyman, Cikiah Thomas and others at the Brampton courthouse. It was covered by the Toronto dailies and even was discussed by Walter Cronkite on the CBS Evening News.
Spider Jones discusses his brief tenure with the Black Panther Party in his autobiography “Out of the Darkness: The Spider Jones Story”. Another African born in Canada Rocky Jone created a Black Panther Party chapter in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Whatever his shortcomings and there were many, Newton led many of us ideologically. For a brief moment in the history of Africans in America Newton was” the tallest tree in the forest”.
Malcolm X was the first national leader in the African community in the United States to oppose the war in Vietnam. Dr. Martin Luther King later followed Malcolm’s lead on this issue; Newton took it to the next limit. He offered troops to fight on the side of the North Vietnamese. In 1970, when was released from prison in California, his first act was to offer troops to fight in Vietnam on the side of the Vietnamese people.
On August 29, 1970 Newton wrote “In the spirit of internationalrevolutionary solidarity the Black Panther Party hereby offers to the National Liberation Front and Provisional revolutionary Government of South Vietnam an undetermined number of troops to assist you in your fight against American imperialism. It is appropriate for the Black Panther Party to take this action at this time in recognition of the fact that your struggle is also our struggle, for we recognize that our common enemy is the American imperialist who is the leader of international bourgeois domination.”
Newton also raised the questions of the liberation of women and even gays. At that time in our history this was not fashionable.
Nationalists, Pan-Africanist and even some socialist formations did not wish to touch the hot potato of gay rights. Newton did. He was the bold one. His speech given on August 15, 1970 created a firestorm in the African liberation movement. At that time I did not support Newton’s thoughts on the issue of gays and lesbians.
Newton said: “We should be careful about using those terms that might turn our friends off. The terms ‘faggot’ and ‘punk’ should be deleted from our vocabulary and, especially, we should not attach names normally designed for homosexuals to men who are enemies of the people. Homosexuals are not enemies of the people. We should try to form a working coalition with the gay liberation and women’s liberation groups. We must always handle social forces in the most appropriate manner.”
Newton was born in Oak Grove, Louisiana on February 17, 1942.
Louisiana has always been a problem for the ruling circle in the United States. Queen Mother Moore, Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, Raymond “Maasi” Hewitt, Elmer “Geronimo” Pratt, Imam Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin (H. Rap Brown), PaulMooney Richard Williams (father of Serena and Venus Willisms )and Newton all hail from Louisiana.
Queen Mother Moore from New Iberia, Carter and Hewiitt from Shreveport, Geronimo from Morgan City, Imam Al-Amin from Baton Rouge and Newton from Oak Grove.
There were 74 chapters of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) in Louisiana alone. Tony Martin pointed this out in his volume, “Race First: The Ideological and Organizational truggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association”.
In the 1950s and 1960s the militant Deacons for Defense sprang up in the pecan state. Jesse Jackson won the primaries for the Democratic Party in 1984 and 1988. Barack Hussein Obama, rode a wave of black support to victory in Louisiana.
The state has also produced its share of sell-outs, buffoons and idiots.
As we commemorate the 39th Anniversary of Black August and the 31th anniversary of Newton joining the ancestors we should remember the words of Mumia Abu-Jamal.
Says Mumia: “Huey was, it must be said, no godling, no saint. He was, however, intensely human, curious, acutely brilliant, a lover of the world’s children, an implacable foe of all the world’s oppressors.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper

Black August, George Jackson and Marcus Garvey

“Garvey was a race FIRST man, never a race ONLY person.”

by Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

Black August 2020 is here. Africa, Africans and our allies should commemorate this historical event which began in the dungeons of California in 1979.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940) appealed to the anti-capitalist and the pro-capitalist forces in the African world. While Garvey was respectful of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) and other leaders of the 1917 Russian Revolution, he fought the U.S. Communist Party tooth and nail. Rupert Charles Lewis, the author of the book, Walter Rodney’s Intellectual and Political Thought, discusses this: Says Lewis “The Comintern out of Moscow had a resolution that the Garvey movement should be attacked and Communist Parties throughout the world including CPUSA and South African Communist Party were very hostile. They toned down their hostilities during Garvey’s imprisonment.”
Garvey supported a limited form of capitalism. However, I don’t think Bill Gates would be too fond of Garvey’s ideas. Garvey put a limit of how much profit an individual and a corporation could earn. He said an individual could earn two million dollars and a corporation only five. In 2020 this would be roughly ($60 million dollars). This would make the One Percenter bust out in laugher.
“Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense with Bobby Seale, counted Garvey among his heroes.”
Garvey’s position on race was more complex than has been presented. He was a race FIRST man, never a race ONLY person. David Brundage, Professor and Graduate Program Director, History Department, University of California, Santa Cruz reveals:
“Most surprising of all in light of the deep currents of anti-black racism that ran through the history of the Irish in America was the enthusiasm of Marcus Garvey and other African-American protest leaders for the Irish cause.”
It may come as a surprise to many that Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense with Bobby Seale, counted Garvey among his heroes. Also, the Field Marshal of the Black Panther Party, George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a student of Garvey, and at one point in his political development actually wanted to go fight in Africa. Newton and Jackson were among the anti-capitalist forces that admired Garvey.
Newton wrote about Garvey in his volume, To Die for the People. He wrote: “Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X were the two Black men of the 20th century who posed an implacable challenge to both the oppressor and the endorsed spokesmen.” Newton recognized and acknowledged that Garvey was a threat to the power structures in the USA and Western Europe. Jackson also shared Garvey’s hatred for Europe’s hand in the underdevelopment of Africa.
James Carr was one of Jackson’s allies in prison. Carr wrote in his autobiography Bad, about the political changes Jackson went through in prison:
“He (Jackson) had become convinced that there would never be any social change in this country, that everyone, Blacks included, had been too brainwashed. He believed that our only hope lay in going back to Africa to participate in the political struggles going on there. George had studied Pan-Africanism and thoroughly mastered African history while I was away. According to George, the new Black man was being formed in the struggles for national liberation going on in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea and Mozambique.”
“George Jackson also shared Garvey’s hatred for Europe’s hand in the underdevelopment of Africa.”
This was where the highest principles of justice and equality were being put into practice: “To promote his ideas, George had started giving political education classes to the Pack (a group of Black convicts joined together for survival inside Soledad prison); each dude had to read a certain amount of material by Garvey and other nationalists and different things from Pan-African magazines George had collected… Africa was on our minds, but we had plenty to worry about right where we were, too.”
Ironically, it was the African liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies plus Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) South West Africa (Namibia) and South Africa that helped turn many Africans in the West to anti-capitalist politics. Amilcar Cabral, the central leader of the struggle in Guinea-Bissau, told Africans in the West that the best thing they could do for Africans struggling against colonialism was fight their governments where they lived.
Jackson was one of many who decided to fight for Africa where they were. Walter Rodney was moved by Jackson’s politics. Rupert Charles Lewis’ book, Walter Rodney’s Intellectual and Political Thought, mentions how Rodney respected Jackson:
“Many of the lectures he gave in the US in the 1970s were concerned with the relevance of Marxism to Africa and the Third World. In his essay on George Jackson, written in Dar es Salaam, he demonstrated the merits of his approach which grasped both class and race dynamics of the Black experience in the US.”
African communities around the globe should find creative ways to commemorate all the historical events that take place in August. Emancipation Day, August 1 is an important day in the history of millions of Africa’s children. This is an important moment for those who fought against the Empire in Britain. The sun has forever set on the British Empire and U.S. Empire is declining every day. August 17 is the birthday of Garvey and it should be remembered. Also, August 7 and August 21 are important in the revolutionary calendar of African people. George Jackson’s younger brother, 17-year-old Jonathan, was killed by police gunfire on August 7, 1970 as he attempted to free James McClain, William Christmas and Ruchell Cinque Magee from a courthouse in Marin County, California. Magee was the only survivor of the Marin County slave rebellion, and is the longest serving political prisoner in the USA.
“Amilcar Cabral told Africans in the West that the best thing they could do for Africans struggling against colonialism was fight their governments where they lived.“
As we reflect on the lives of Garvey, Rodney, George and Jonathan Jackson we must also remember Magee. He can be contacted: Ruchell Magee, A-902051, CMC P.O. Box 8103, San Luis Obispo, and CA 93409. We cannot allow Ruchcell Magee to die in prison. Every effort should be made to free Magee and all political prisoners inside the United States.
In an unpublished commentary on an earlier version of this article, Richard Sutherland writes:
“Any discussion of Garvey must do so dialectically, in motion, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of Garvey and showing how subsequent generations promoted the strengths yet transcended the weaknesses.
“In the first paragraph, you pointed out the contradiction in Garvey but showed the two possibilities emanating from this contradiction (pro- or anti- capitalist) and (correctly) focused your attention on the revolutionary legacy that flowed from GARVEY. Objectively, this is the correct way of dealing with Garvey, especially if we call ourselves progressive which implies FORWARD MOVEMENT!
“As you point out, Huey and George represented the revolutionary aspects of what Garvey wasn’t, yet manifested the spiritual and emotional relevance of what Garvey was.
“Again, it was Garvey’s emphasis on Africa that stimulated future generation of revolutionary Africans to “look to Africa” for inspiration. And we did! As you’ve shown, Huey and George were inspired by revolutionaries in Africa who looked like GARVEY in the form of Amilcar Cabral and others. They adopted their Garveyism to Marxism and their Marxism to Garveyism, analysing their concrete conditions. Huey and George saw how revolutionary Africans on the Continent were struggling to realize one of Garvey’s dreams of a free and liberated Africa for Africans and incorporated some of the new and progressives ideas that were lacking in Garvey. Again, Garvey transcended. This is the dialectical negation!
“Dialectically, we start with Garvey and end with his revolutionary progeny! You did! You started with Garvey and ended with BLACK AUGUST! This is necessary to properly understand Garvey and his contribution to the further development of the PROGRESSIVE struggle of oppressed Africans and other oppressed people.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show for http://blackpower96.org/http://www.theburningspear.com/uhuru-radio and Radio Regent http://www.radioregent.com/ and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper.
For more informantion norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

Norman Richmond: on Afro-Canadian History

Remembering Garfield Belfon Fourteen Year –Old youth killed by Toronto Police in 1953


Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali




“The police become necessary in human society only at that junction of human society when it is split between those who have and those who ain’t got.” — Omali Yeshitela, Chairman African People’s Socialist Party


Before Black Lives Matter Toronto there was the Black Action Defense Committee (BADC). Sherona Hall, Dudley Laws, Charles Roach, and Lennox Farrell founded BADC). These groups were created to deal with the question of police brutally in the Canadian context. 

Little or nothing has recently been written or discussed about the shooting of a 14 year- old Black youth in Toronto in the 1950s. The front page of the Nov. 30, 1953 edition of the Toronto Daily Star could have been written in 2018. The headline reads “Charge P.C. As Boy, 14 Shot Died.” This event took place in the basement of the S.S. White Co. dental building at 250 College Street. The officer had never fired his gun on duty before, told detectives that his gun went off when a pile of packing boxes toppled toward him. The bullet hit Belfon in the neck, killing him almost instantly. Press reports repeatedly said that the police officers’ gun went off accidentally. It is noteworthy that the Star reported, “Belfon was the second person killed in four months by police gunfire. George Hurst was shot jumping over a fence in an attempted burglary in the east end. Constable Earl Snyder charged with manslaughter was freed at the preliminary hearing.”
Three other youths were found in the building at the same time as Belfon. Frank Fuzz, George Marshall and Douglas Richardson all were 16 and were charged with shop breaking. Many will know Douglas as Dougie Richardson who went on to become one of Canada’s foremost jazz artists.

Dougie Richardson
The Toronto Star’s Ashante Infantry wrote in Richardson’s 2007 obituary: “A veteran who’d worked with stellar acts such as Freddie Hubbard and the O’Jays, Richardson was best known as co-leader of the award-winning hard bop group Kollage with boyhood pal drummer Archie Alleyne.” It should be remembered that Richardson also worked with the legendary Chicago comedian/actor Bernie Mac.

Dougie’s father Sam Richardson was a legendary Track and Field athlete. At 15, in London’s Commonwealth Games in 1934, he won his gold medal in the long jump with a leap of 23 feet 8 inches (7.21 metres), and silver in the triple jump. I wrote an article about Richardson for the Globe and Mail in 1983. The late Gwen Johnston reflected on this historical event. I wrote: “Gwen Johnston, a co-proprietor of Third World Books and Crafts and Richardson’s first cousin, remembers how Toronto’s small but enthusiastic black community reacted to Richardson’s victory when he returned. Says Johnston: “You couldn’t get to him, the crowd was so great at Union Station. The community welcomed their young son home. We had a big reception for him at a place called Belvin Hall, which was on College near Spadina. I’ll never forget it.”
A historical event took place on February 15th. A Street in downtown Toronto was named Sam Richardson Way. That day also happened to be Richardson’s oldest son Norman Richardson’s 80th birthday.
he killing of Belfon was headline news in the corporate press in Toronto. Nineteen Fifty-Three was a deplorable year for African people in Canada and the people of the world – period. The year of Belfon’s death was also the same year that the immortal James Baldwin’s award winning semi-autobiographical novel Go Tell It on the Mountain was published.
The Cold War was pretty hot. Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes President of the Empire. Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union dies. The Land and Freedom Army so-called Mau Mau were on the move in Kenya. General elections were held in “British Guyana” April 27, 1953. They were the first held under universal suffrage and resulted in a victory for the People’s Progressive Party (PPP), which won 18 of the 24 seats in the new House of Assembly. Its leader, Cheddi Jagan, became Prime Minister.
In the US Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed. They were accused of conspiring to commit espionage and passing nuclear weapons secrets to Russian agents. In the United States the first color television sets go on sale, for around $1,175. The New York Yankees defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers who had Jackie Robinson and Roy Campanella on their roster. The Yankees were white, on white, in white.

            Bromely Armstrong


Bromely Armstrong came to Canada from Jamaica in 1947. Armstrong remembers the merits and demerits of living in Canada. There were issues with the police when he came here. He talks about this in Bromley Memoirs of Bromley L. Armstrong by Sheldon Taylor. Says Armstrong: “Before the Buddy Evans shooting, some police officers allegedly would abuse and brutalize minorities and First Nation’ peoples. However, in such instances care seemed to have taken by those police officers to ensure that their somewhat racially motivated actions were not fatal. This was not the case with the 1950s Belfonshooting. 
James Belfon was a barber with a business located near Huron and Dundas streets in Toronto. His son Garfield was shot as it is alleged, when he and a number of other youths were caught in the act of breaking and entering a dental warehouse in Toronto.
A Toronto Chapter of Black Lives Matter was organized in 2013. BADC was founded in 1988 in response to the killing of Lester Donaldson a Jamaican born Canadian, which was the last straw in a series of police shootings of Black men in Toronto. B. Denham Jolly came to Toronto for the first time in 1956. Jolly reflected on how the shooting of Buddy Evans, a 24 year old Nova Scotia born man affected Toronto’s Black community.
Evans was shot dead by a police officer in 1978 during a fight at a Toronto disco. This event led to an 11-week inquest and mobilized African Canadians. The government responded by creating a civilian complaints commission pilot project in the 1980s. Jolly tells the story in his award winning memoir, In The Black: My Life.
The African People’s Socialist Party has declared February 21th as the Day of the African Martyr. El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) was killed inside the Audubon Ballroom in New York City on February 21, 1965. “The African People’s Socialist Party calls on all African revolutionaries of all countries to raise high, in a revolutionary manner, the heroic memory of all our fallen martyrs, of all those in every city, village, community and country where they fell as evidence of the determination of our people to fight every battle on every front until liberty has been won.”
During this time we should also remember Toronto’s Garfield Belfon and Sandra Bland. Bland was a 28-year-old black woman who was found hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas, on July 13, 2015, three days after being arrested during a traffic stop. 
Many maintain that African people are oppressed wherever we are. Some go so as far saying that black people are the footstools of humanity.
The great Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh wrote this in 1924: “It is well-known that the Black race is the most oppressed and the most exploited of the human family. It is well-known that the spread of capitalism and the discovery of the New World had as an immediate result the rebirth of slavery. What everyone does not perhaps know is that after sixty-five years of so-called emancipation, American Negroes still endure atrocious moral and material sufferings, of which the most cruel and horrible is the custom of lynching.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show for http://blackpower96.org/http://www.theburningspear.com/uhuru-radio and Radio Regent http://www.radioregent.com/ and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper.
For more informantion norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

Norman Otis Richmond: “Black Power in the Great White North: a report from Toronto, Canada”

Dr. Matsemela Odom talks with Jalali, also known as Norman Otis Richmond about:

  • COVID-19 and colonial violence against Africans in Canada
  • History of the African liberation movement and the struggle for African unity in Canada
  • Revolutionary international African culture

Jalali was born in Louisiana and raised in Los Angeles, California.  He moved to Canada in the late-1960s where he became an early leader in the African Liberation Movement in Canada.  

He’s dedicated his life to revolutionary cultural work. An accomplished musician himself and a musical historian, he has worked with a host of musicians such as Bob Marley, Abbey Lincoln, Hugh Masekela, and Fela Kuti. 

Jalali is the host and producer of the “Diasporic Music” show

He is a prolific writer on African politics and culture, widely published including in the Pambazuka News, the San Francisco Bay View, the Black Agenda Report, CounterPunch and The Burning Spear newspaper, where he has a regular column.

Black Owned Bookstores in the United States

131 Black Owned Bookstores Found (sorted by state, city, name)

1 – Pyramid Art Books & Custom Framing
1001 Wright Avenue, Suite C
Little Rock, AR 72206
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 501-372-5824
Email: pyramidartbookscustomframing@gmail.com
Opened in: 1988
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (7)

2 – Nubian Nook
Court Street Hamilton
Bermuda, BM
Owner/Proprietor: Rosheena Beek
Phone: 1 441-516-8258
Email: mommysays@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-05-19 (174)

3 – Ethnic Notions Bookstore
433 Solano Dr
Benicia, CA 94510
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 707-334-3060
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (10)

4 – Smiley’s Bookstore
940 East Dominguez Suite K
Carson, CA 90746
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (310) 324-8444
Email: info@SmileysBooks.org
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2014-04-04 (13)

5 – Hanna’s Ethnic Bookseller
240 Blue Mountain Way
Claremont, CA 91711
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 909-626-5051
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (11)

6 – Zahra’s Books and Things
900 North La Brea Ave
Inglewood, CA 90302
Owner/Proprietor: Renee Mendscole
Phone: 310-330-1300
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (14)

7 – Shades of Afrika Bookstore
1001 E 4th St.
Long Beach , CA 90802
Owner/Proprietor: Sista Renee Quarles
Phone: (562) 436-2210
Email:
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (140)

8 – Eso Won Bookstore
4327 Degnan Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90008
Owner/Proprietor: James Fugate and Thomas Hamilton
Phone: (323) 290-1048
Email: jmfugate@msn.com
Opened in: 1990
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (4)

9 – Zambezi Bazaar
3347 W 43rd Street
Los Angeles, CA 90008
Owner/Proprietor: Jackie Ryan
Phone: (323) 299-6383
Email:
Opened in: 1990
Last updated: 2016-04-12 (135)

10 – Ashay by the Bay
1411 Webster Street
Oakland, CA 94612
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah Day
Phone: 1-844-543-7732
Email: ashaybythebayceo@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-06-05 (175)

11 – Marcus Books (Oakland)
3900 Martin Luther King Jr. Way
Oakland, CA 94609
Owner/Proprietor: Johnson Family
Phone: (510) 652-2344
Email: info@marcusbooksoakland.com
Opened in: 1960
Last updated: 2017-06-05 (12)

12 – D3 Comic Book Spot
2148 Hilltop Mall Rd
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor: Darren Macon
Phone: 510-283-5051
Email: d3comicbookspot@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2020-06-04 (211)

13 – The Multicultural Children’s Book Store
1116 Hilltop Mall Drive
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor: Tamara
Phone: (510) 422-5304
Email: multiculturalbookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-02-04 (206)

14 – West County READS Multicultural Children’s Book Store
2325 Hilltop Mall Drive
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (510) 422-5304
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-04-25 (189)

15 – Carol’s Books
1913 Del Paso Blvd
Sacramento, CA 95815
Owner/Proprietor: Carol
Phone: (916) 646-6525
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-06-04 (9)

16 – Underground Books
2814 35th Street
Sacramento, CA 95817
Owner/Proprietor: Georgia West “Mother Rose”
Phone: 916-737-3333
Email: gwest@underground-books.com
Opened in: 2002
Last updated: 2017-02-02 (110)

17 – Black Books Galore, Inc.
65 High Ridge Rd., #407
Stamford, CT 06905
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-08-19 (15)

18 – DC Bookdiva’s Mobile Bookstore
Various Locations in DC
Washington, DC
Owner/Proprietor: T. Short
Phone:
Email: dcbookdiva@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (98)

19 – MahoganyBooks
1231 Good Hope Rd SE
Washington, DC 20020
Owner/Proprietor: Derrick and Ramunda Young
Phone: 703-730-3873
Email: customerservice@mahoganybooks.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-11-23 (177)

20 – Sankofa Video Books & Cafe
2714 Georgia Ave.,NW
Washington, DC 20001
Owner/Proprietor: Shirikiana Gerima
Phone: 202-234-4755
Email: sankofa@gmail.com
Opened in: 1982
Last updated: 2012-03-24 (86)

21 – The Children Of The Sun
2802 Georgia Ave NW
Washington, DC 20001
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 202-299-0279
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-06-10 (147)

22 – Loyalty (Petworth) Bookstore
843 Upshur NW
Washington, DC, DC 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Hannah Oliver Depp
Phone: (240) 863-2087
Email: hannah@loyaltybookstores.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (208)

23 – MeJah Books & Crafts
Holly Oak Plaza, 2099A Philadelphia Pike
Claymont, DE 19703
Owner/Proprietor: Ms. Emlyn Q. DeGannes
Phone: 302-793-3424
Email: mejahinc@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2016-03-07 (16)

24 – Chez Alpha Books
Behind YumYums-Ouakam
Cite Africa Dakar, Senegal, DKR
Owner/Proprietor: Angela Franklin-Faye
Phone: +221 33 8206359
Email: maizie@chezalphabks.com
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2019-11-09 (203)

25 – Pyramid Books

Boynton Beach, FL
Owner/Proprietor: Denise & Shaka Akbar
Phone: 561-731-4422
Email: pyramidbks@aol.com
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2019-07-23 (91)

26 – Dare Books
245 N. U.S. Highway 17-92
Longwood, FL 32750
Owner/Proprietor: Desmond A. Reid
Phone: 407-673-3273
Email: DesmondR@darebooks.com
Opened in: 1982
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (118)

27 – The Gathering Awareness and Book Center
314 N Devillers St
Pensacola, FL 32501
Owner/Proprietor: Georgia Blackmon
Phone: (850) 438-4882
Email: awarenessg@thegathering.gccoxmail.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2017-12-03 (179)

28 – Cultured Books
833 22nd St. S.
St. Petersburg, FL 33712
Owner/Proprietor: Lorielle J. Hollaway
Phone: (727) 328-4822
Email: stpetereads@culturedbooks.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-12-18 (181)

29 – Best Richardson African Diaspora Literature & Culture Museum
1463 Tampa Park Plaza
Tampa, FL 33605
Owner/Proprietor: Skip Richardson, Gigi Best-Richardson
Phone: (813) 944-2112
Email: bradlcmuseum@gmail.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2020-06-08 (193)

30 – Présence Africaine
25 bis rue des Ecoles 75005
Paris, FR 75005
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: +33 (0)1 43 54 15 88
Email: presaf@club-internet.fr
Opened in: 1949
Last updated: 2019-07-27 (196)

31 – Medu Bookstore, Greenbriar Mall
2841 Greenbriar Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30331
Owner/Proprietor: Nia Damali
Phone: 404-346-3263
Email: nia@medubooks.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (22)

32 – Sisters Bookshop
209 Edgewood Ave S.E.
Atlanta, GA 30303
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (404) 585-6243
Email: svbbooks@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-04-04 (138)

33 – The Shrine of the Black Madonna
946 Ralph D. Abernathy Blvd SW
Atlanta, GA 30310
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 404-549-8676
Email: buyer@shrinebookstore.com
Opened in: 1970
Last updated: 2019-11-06 (25)

34 – The Listening Tree
2308 Candler Rd.
Decatur, GA 30032
Owner/Proprietor: Omar and Kimberly Finley
Phone:
Email: listeningtreebooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 2014
Last updated: 2019-11-08 (204)

35 – Black Dot Cultural Center
6984 Main St.
Lithonia, GA 30058
Owner/Proprietor: Adigun Kazemde Ajamu
Phone: 404-519-8107
Email: info@blackdotcc.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-12-13 (191)

36 – Book Boutique
2929 Turner Hill Rd
Lithonia, GA 30038
Owner/Proprietor: Rodney Daniel and Monique S. Hall
Phone: 770-484-4595
Email: bookboutiqueatl@gmail.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2018-12-10 (182)

37 – All Things Inspiration Giftique

Mableton, GA
Owner/Proprietor: LaVonya Tensley
Phone:
Email: allthingsinspirationgift@gmail.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (201)

38 – NuBian Books
1540 Southlak Pkwy, Ste 7A
Morrow, GA 30260
Owner/Proprietor: Marcus Williams.
Phone: 678-422-6120
Email: marcus3x@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1999
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (24)

39 – Lushena Bookstore
607 Country Club Drive, Unit E
Bensenville, IL 60106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 630-238-8708
Email: lushenabooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2012-03-24 (31)

40 – Da Book Joint
2311 E. 71 St
Chicago, IL
Owner/Proprietor: Verlean Singletary
Phone: 773-655-3146
Email: verlean@dabookjoint.com
Opened in: 2007
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (124)

41 – Frontline Bookstore
5206 S Harper Ave
Chicago, IL 60615
Owner/Proprietor: Sekou
Phone: (773) 288-7718
Email:
Opened in: 1987
Last updated: 2014-03-14 (136)

42 – Semicolon Bookstore & Gallery
515 N Halsted St
Chicago, IL 60642
Owner/Proprietor: DL Mullen
Phone: 312-877-5170
Email: info@semicolonchi.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-09-11 (199)

43 – The Underground Bookstore
1727 E. 87th Street
Chicago, IL 60617
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 773-768-8869
Email: TheUndergroundBookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (121)

44 – Black Expression Book Source
9500 5 Western Ave
Evergreen Park, IL 60805
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 708-424-4338
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (28)

45 – Afriware Books, Co
1701 S. 1st Ave., Suite 503
Maywood, IL 60153
Owner/Proprietor: Nzingha Nommo
Phone: 708-223-8081
Email: afriwarebooks@afriwarebooks.com
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2015-12-13 (27)

46 – The Brain Lair Bookstore
714 E Jefferson Blvd
South Bend, IN 46617
Owner/Proprietor: Kathy M Burnette, Book Dean
Phone: 574-400-5572
Email:
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2018-07-06 (190)

47 – Bookophilia
92 Hope Road
Kingston, JA
Owner/Proprietor: David Thomas
Phone: 1 876-978-5248
Email: info@bookophilia.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2016-03-27 (163)

48 – The Wild Fig Books
726 N. Limestone
Lexington, KY 40508
Owner/Proprietor: Ronald Davis & Crystal Wilkinson
Phone: 859-381-8802
Email: wildfigworkercooperative@gmail.com
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2020-06-03 (89)

49 – Akoma Novelties & Books
1401 Triplett St. Suite. B
Owensboro, KY 42303
Owner/Proprietor: Brittney Odom & Sharkoo Barrett
Phone: (812) 463-2427
Email: info.akomalife@gmail.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2019-07-08 (192)

50 – Between the Lines Bookstore
4242 Government Street Suite #113
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Owner/Proprietor: Kim Knight
Phone: (225) 389-6392
Email: betweenthelinebooks@icloud.com
Opened in: 2014
Last updated: 2015-06-09 (151)

51 – SanKofa With Me
7720 Linwood
Caddo, LA 71106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 318-560-1136
Email: sankofawithme@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-12-26 (184)

52 – Word of Life Christian Bookstores
6321 West Blvd.
Los Angeles, LA 90043
Owner/Proprietor: Jonathan Curtiss
Phone: 323-295-8223
Email: jon@shopwordoflife.com
Opened in: 1961
Last updated: 2020-06-11 (214)

53 – Community Book Center
2523 Bayou Road
New Orleans, LA 70119
Owner/Proprietor: Vera Warren-Williams
Phone: 504-948-7323
Email:
Opened in: 1983
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (34)

54 – Nubian Cultural Outreach Center
7720 Linwood Ave
Shreveport, LA 71106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (318) 686-4477
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (139)

55 – New Beacon Books
76 Stroud Green Road
United Kingdom, LN N4 3EN
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: +44 20 7272 4889
Email: newbeaconbooksuk@gmail.com
Opened in: 1966
Last updated: 2019-07-27 (195)

56 – The Jazzhole
168 Awolowo Road
Ikoyi, LOS
Owner/Proprietor: Kunle Tejuosho
Phone: +234 706 064 8580
Email:
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2019-11-10 (205)

57 – Frugal Bookstore
57 Warren Street Roxbury, MA 02119
Roxbury, MA 02119
Owner/Proprietor: Leonard Egerton
Phone: 617-541-1722
Email: frugal_books@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2019-11-17 (119)

58 – Olive Tree Books-n-Voices
97 Hancock Street
Springfield, MA 01109
Owner/Proprietor: Zee Johnson
Phone: 413-737-6400
Email: olivetreebooks@msn.com
Opened in: 2004
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (42)

59 – MasterWorks Books
2703 Curry Drive
Adelphi, MD 20783
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 301-422-2168
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (36)

60 – Everyone’s Place
1356 W. North Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21217
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 410-728-0877
Email:
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (35)

61 – Expressions Books and Frames
222 N Paca Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (410) 783-0195
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (166)

62 – Jay Books
400 W Lexington Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2016-05-13 (164)

63 – Vision Christian Bookstore
10398 Piscataway Road
Clinton, MD 20735
Owner/Proprietor: Robert & Cheryl Woodard
Phone: 301-234-0035
Email: armorofgod@comcaat.net
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2017-12-21 (183)

64 – Wisdom Book Center
5116 Liberty Heights Ave.
Gwynn Oak, MD 21207
Owner/Proprietor: Bro. Tehuti & Bro. Elliot
Phone: (410) 664-1946
Email: wisdombookcenter@verizon.net
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2016-01-27 (162)

65 – Cartel Cafe & Books Store
5011 Indian Head Highway
Oxon Hill, MD 20745
Owner/Proprietor: T. Styles
Phone: 240 724-7225
Email: cartelcafeandbooks@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (120)

66 – Loyalty Books
823 Ellsworth Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Hannah Oliver Depp
Phone: 443-466-6773
Email: hannah@loyaltybookstores.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (207)

67 – Silver Spring Books
938 Bonifant Street
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Cynthia Parker
Phone: 301-587-7484
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-12-06 (159)

68 – Urban Knowledge Bookstore
3731 Branch Avenue
Temple Hills, MD 20748
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (301) 702-0717
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2016-05-13 (165)

69 – Source Booksellers
4240 Cass Ave Suite 105
Detroit, MI 48201
Owner/Proprietor: Janet Jones
Phone: 313-832-1155
Email: info@sourcebooksdetroit.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-06-03 (146)

70 – Nandi’s Knowledge Cafe
12511 Woodward Ave
Highland Park, MI 48203
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (313) 865-1288
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-11-08 (152)

71 – Detroit Book City
24361 Greenfield Rd, Ste. 305
Southfield, MI 48075
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (248) 209-6880
Email:
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2017-12-13 (180)

72 – The Truth Bookstore
21500 Northwestern Highway, Northland Mall Store # 779
Southfield, MI 48075
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 248-557-4824
Email:
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (92)

73 – Hood Book Headquarters
20900 Dequindre Road
Warren, MI 48091
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (107)

74 – Black Stone Bookstore & Cultural Center
214 W. Michigan Ave
Ypsilanti, MI 48197
Owner/Proprietor: Kip Johnson and Carlos Franklin
Phone: (734) 961-7376
Email: info.blackstoneproject@gmail.com
Opened in: 2013
Last updated: 2020-06-07 (134)

75 – Babycake’s Book Stack

St. Paul, MN 55104
Owner/Proprietor: Zsamé Morgan
Phone: 651-321-3436
Email: zsame@babycakesbookstack.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-07-29 (221)

76 – Willa’s Books & Vinyl
1734 E 63rd Street
Kansas City, MO 64110
Owner/Proprietor: Willa Robinson
Phone: (816) 419-1051
Email: willasbooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2020-07-29 (220)

77 – Progressive Emporium & Education Center
1108 North Sarah Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63113
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (314) 875-9277
Email: progressiveemporium@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-05-01 (144)

78 – EyeSeeMe
7827 Olive Blvd
University City, MO 63130
Owner/Proprietor: Pamela Blair
Phone: (314) 349-1122
Email: customerservice@eyeseeme.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2016-01-15 (161)

79 – Magnolia Tree Books
310 N. Magnolia Street, Suite 101A
Laurel, MS 39440
Owner/Proprietor: zaji
Phone: 601-342-0990
Email: info@magnoliatreebooks.com
Opened in: 2013
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (130)

80 – Aframerican Book Store
3226 Lake St
Omaha, NE 68111
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email: aframerican@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (44)

81 – The Little Boho Bookstore
164a Broadway
Bayonne, NJ 07002
Owner/Proprietor: Sandra Dear & Rod Johnson
Phone: 2012584499
Email: info@thelittlebohobookshop.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2020-06-20 (218)

82 – La Unique African American Books & Cultural Center
111 N 6th St.
Camden, NJ 08102
Owner/Proprietor: Larry Miles
Phone: (856) 338-1958
Email: Simba@launiquebooks.net
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-04-30 (143)

83 – African American Book Store
216 1st St
Hackensack, NJ 07601
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (45)

84 – Source of Knowledge
867 Broad St
Newark, NJ 07102
Owner/Proprietor: Dexter George
Phone: (973) 824-2556
Email: sourceofknowledge867@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1998
Last updated: 2019-12-19 (157)

85 – Urban Books On Wheels
28 Old Tpke
Pleasantville, NJ 08232
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (609) 383-9100
Email: Futuredj1164@aol.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (106)

86 – Imoya Treasures, Inc
1465 Irving Street
Rahway, NJ 07065
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 732-388-4955
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (48)

87 – Janco Books
2202 W Charleston Blvd
Las Vegas, Nevada 89102, NV 89102
Owner/Proprietor: Christina Benton
Phone: 702-522-9286
Email: books@jancobookstore.comOpened
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-01-21 (185)

88 – The Lit. Bar
131 Alexander Avenue (btwn 134th St. & Bruckner Blvd)
Bronx, NY 10454
Owner/Proprietor: Noëlle Santos
Phone: (347) 955-3610
Email: thebronxreads@thelitbar.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-08-02 (197)

89 – African Record Center
1194 Nostrand Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11225
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (718) 493-4500
Email:
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-06-16 (216)

90 – Black Mind Book Boutique
610 New York Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11203
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 718-774-5800
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (52)

91 – Cafe con Libros
724 Prospect Place
Brooklyn, NY 11216
Owner/Proprietor: Kalima DeSuze
Phone: 347-460-2838
Email: info@cafeconlibrosbk.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-02-02 (186)

92 – Official Connection
312 Livingston Street
Brooklyn, NY 11217
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (718) 488-0006
Email: official.connection@hotmail.com
Opened in: 2010
Last updated: 2015-08-13 (142)

93 – Zawadi Books
1382 Jefferson Avenue
Buffalo, NY 14208
Owner/Proprietor: Kenneth and Sharon Holley
Phone: (716) 903-6740
Email: jordanholley@aol.com
Opened in: 2012
Last updated: 2017-12-12 (150)

94 – Grandma’s Place
84 West 120th Street
Harlem, NY 10027
Owner/Proprietor: Grandma Dawn
Phone: (212) 360-6776
Email: grandmasplaceinc@email.biz
Opened in: 2009
Last updated: 2015-01-25 (154)

95 – Blenheim Hill Books
698 Main Street, Suite A
Hobart, NY 13788
Owner/Proprietor: Cheryl Clarke Barbara Balliet &
Phone: 607-538-9222
Email: blenheimbooks1@gmail.com
Opened in: 2005
Last updated: 2017-03-10 (172)

96 – Becoming Gods Answer Bookstore
1832 Madison Ave (between 119th and 120th st)
New York, NY 10035
Owner/Proprietor: Rev Joyce Eady
Phone: 646-215-6119
Email: c.brown@becominggodsanswerbookstore.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (102)

97 – Sister’s Uptown Bookstore
1942 Amsterdam Avenue (at 156th Street)
New York, NY 10032
Owner/Proprietor: Janifer P. Wilson
Phone: 212-862-3680
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (58)

98 – Mood Makers Books & Art Gallery Village Gate Square
274 N. Goodman St.
Rochester, NY 14607
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 877.223.1730
Email: sales@moodmakersbooks.com or info@moodmakersbooks.
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (56)

99 – Smith & Hannon Book Store
50 E Freedom Way
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (513) 641-2700
Email: info@smithandhannonbookstore.com
Opened in: 2003
Last updated: 2019-09-11 (200)

100 – A Cultural Exchange
12624 Larchmere Blvd.
Cleveland, OH 44120
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah McHamm
Phone: 216-229-8300
Email: aculturalexchange@fsbcglobal.net
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (64)

101 – The African Book Shelf
1324Q Euclid Ave
Cleveland, OH 44112
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 216-681-6511
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (61)

102 – Black Art Plus
43 Parsons Ave.
Columbus, OH 43215
Owner/Proprietor: Mike Miller
Phone: 614-469-9980
Email: blackartplus@att.net
Opened in: 1987
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (62)

103 – The Book Suite
887 E. Long Street
Columbus, OH 43203
Owner/Proprietor: James
Phone: 614-252-4552
Email: james@thebooksuite.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (112)

104 – Ujamaa Book Store
1493 E Livingston Ave
Columbus, OH 43205
Owner/Proprietor: Mustafaa Shabazz
Phone: 614-258-4633
Email: juneteenthohio@fuse.net or smustafaa@aol.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (66)

105 – Nappy Roots Books
3705 Springlake Drive
Oklahoma City, OK 73111
Owner/Proprietor: Camille Landry
Phone: 405-896-0203
Email: camille.landry@gmail.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2020-06-04 (212)

106 – Fulton Street Books & Coffee
210 W Latimer Street
Tulsa, OK 74106
Owner/Proprietor: Onikah Asamoa-Caesar
Phone: 918-932-8646
Email: info@fultonstreet918.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2020-06-09 (213)

107 – Mocha Books
5525 E 51ST STREET, SUITE 205
Tulsa, OK 74135
Owner/Proprietor: McGlory Shionka
Phone: 918-236-9019
Email: mochabooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-11-03 (202)

108 – Knowledge Bookstore
177 Queen Street West
Brampton, ON L6Y 1M5
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 905-459-9875
Email: sales@knowledgebookstore.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-12-08 (153)

109 – The Black Reserve Bookstore
319 W. Main Street, Suite #6
Lansdale, PA 19446
Owner/Proprietor: Anwar Muhammad
Phone: 267-221-3090
Email: theblackreservebookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-03-24 (188)

110 – Books & Stuff
23 W Maplewood Mall
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email: 215-844-0844
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2017-09-24 (176)

111 – Color Book Gallery
6353 Germantown Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah Gary
Phone: 215-844-4200
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-09-11 (156)

112 – Hakim’s Bookstore and Gift Shop
210 S 52nd St
Philadelphia, PA 19139
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (215) 474-9495
Email: bookstorehakims@gmail.com
Opened in: 1959
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (70)

113 – Harriett’s Bookshop
258 E. Girard Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19125
Owner/Proprietor: Jeannine Cook
Phone:
Email: info@harriettsbookshop.com
Opened in: 2020
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (209)

114 – Uncle Bobbie’s Coffee & Books
5445 Germantown Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor: Marc Lamont Hill
Phone: (215) 403-7058
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-11-27 (178)

115 – The Tiny Bookstore
1130 Perry Highway, Suite 106
Pittsburgh, PA 15237
Owner/Proprietor: Lea Bickerton
Phone: 412-585-2651
Email: info@tinybookspgh.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2020-06-15 (215)

116 – Turning Page Bookshop
216 Saint James Ave Ste F
Goose Creek, SC 29445
Owner/Proprietor: VaLinda Miller
Phone: 843-501-7223
Email:
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-07-01 (194)

117 – Malcolm X Center for Self-Determination
321 W. Antrim Drive
Greenville, SC 29606
Owner/Proprietor: Efia Nwangaza
Phone: (864) 239-0470
Email: wmxp955@gmail.com
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2014-06-28 (149)

118 – The African Place
581 N 3rd St
Memphis, TN 38105
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (901) 524-0800
Email: theafricanplace@aol.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-11-02 (158)

119 – Alkebu-Lan Images Bookstore & Gift Shop
2721 Jefferson Street
Nashville, TN 37208
Owner/Proprietor: Yusef Harris
Phone: 615-321-4111
Email: alkebulanimages@gmail.com
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2015-01-07 (73)

120 – Pan-African Connection
828 Fourth Ave.
Dallas, TX 75226
Owner/Proprietor: Akwete Tyehimba (CEO)
Phone: 214-943-8262
Email: panafric@airmail.net
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (96)

121 – Enda’s Booktique
428 N. Main Street
Duncanville, TX 75116
Owner/Proprietor: E Jean Pemberton Jones
Phone: 972-460-6362
Email: endasbooktique@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (210)

122 – The Dock Bookshop
6637 Meadowbrook Dr.
Fort Worth, TX 76112
Owner/Proprietor: Donya Craddock
Phone: 817-457-5700
Email: thedockbookshop@gmail.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (6)

123 – African Imports Houston
12300 North Fwy Ste 147 Greenspoint Mall
Houston, TX 77060
Owner/Proprietor: Obi
Phone: (281) 875-0056
Email: donbasel@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (131)

124 – Black World Books
500 N Fort Hood Street Suite 504
Killeen, TX 76541
Owner/Proprietor: Maeva Jackson
Phone: (254) 554-5559
Email: info@blackworldbooks.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2017-04-17 (173)

125 – Harambee Books and Artworks
1132 Prince Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 703-299-2591
Email: info@harambeebooks.org
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2018-02-05 (187)

126 – Riches In Reading
912 Canal Dr.
Chesapeake, VA 23323
Owner/Proprietor: Kenyatta Ingram
Phone: 929-445-7427
Email: info@richesinreading.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2017-01-04 (171)

127 – Urban Moon Books: The Indie Author Outlet
Chesapeake Square Mall, 4200 Portsmouth Blvd
Chesapeake, VA 23321
Owner/Proprietor: Fanita Pendleton
Phone: 757-465-3858
Email: urbanmoonbooksandmore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2016-05-26 (167)

128 – Books and Crannies
50 E Church St Ste 4
Martinsville, VA 24112
Owner/Proprietor: DeShanta Hairston
Phone: 276-403-4380
Email: staff@booksandcranniesva.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2020-06-24 (219)

129 – House of Consciousness
633 West 35th Street
Norfolk, VA 23508
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 757-314-1943
Email: hocbulletin@gmail.com
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2015-03-17 (137)

130 – Timbuktu Bookstore
3601 East Ocean View Avenue, Unit C.
Norfolk, VA 23518
Owner/Proprietor: Bro. Furqaan S. Ali
Phone: 757-374-4591
Email:
Opened in: 2003
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (116)

131 – Positive Vibes
6220 B Indian River Rd.
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
Owner/Proprietor: A Partnership
Phone: 757-523-1399
Email:
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (82)

SEE MORE AT : https://aalbc.com/bookstores/list.php

Black-Owned Banks by State Where they are, what they provide

Ever since the founding of the Bank of North America in 1781, banking has played a critical role in facilitating the American Dream.1 These institutions provide indispensable monetary services, ranging from accepting deposits to offering loans. Credit is king in the United States, and without high-quality financial institutions, countless Americans would struggle to acquire vehicles, housing, and other essential items.

However, like pretty much all of the nation’s older institutions, banks have also played a significant part in America’s racist past. Racial discrimination in the banking industry has kept countless African Americans from receiving financial assistance, and remnants of this bigotry linger to this day. Black-owned banks arose as an alternative to larger institutions to provide greater access to banking services as well as an opportunity to support local communities.

Key Takeaways

  • Today—including credit unions—there are 38 Black-owned financial institutions in the United States. Taken together, they have approximately $5.135 billion in assets in total.
  • Black-owned banks provide customers not just access to the financial resources they need, but the chance to invest in the financial health and well-being of their community.
  • Black-owned banks also play a critical role in fighting modern-day systemic racism in the financial sector.
  • Critics of Black-owned for-profit banks have posited that true financial justice requires institutions, such as not-for-profit credit unions, that are separate from a financial system rooted in racism and exploitation.
  • Of the 38 Black-owned financial institutions in the country, exactly half are not-for-profit credit unions.

Background and History of Black-Owned Banks

Black-owned banks (i.e., depository financial institutions with 51% or more of the stock owned by Black people) didn’t exist until more than a century after the Bank of North America first opened its doors.2 Prior to the chartering of the first Black-owned bank in 1888, Congress and President Lincoln established the Freedman’s Savings Bank in 1865. As part of the Freedman’s Bureau, this institution was designed to help newly freed African Americans navigate the U.S. financial system. Despite Congress voting to close the Freedman’s Bureau in 1872, the bank continued to operate. In 1874, Frederick Douglass took over as the bank’s D.C. branch director, and he found the place to be rife with corruption and risky investments. Despite Douglass investing $10,000 of his own money in the bank in an attempt to save it, Freedman’s Savings went bankrupt later that same year.3 Although the Freedman’s Savings Bank doesn’t fit the modern criteria of a Black-owned bank, it represents a critical first step.

The first officially chartered Black-owned bank, the True Reformers Bank, was founded on March 2, 1888, by Reverend William Washington Browne. A former slave and Union Army officer, Browne was founder of the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers fraternal organization. The True Reformers Bank came about when Browne and his organization faced financial hardships while trying to establish a new branch in Virginia. Unable to manage the order’s money without arousing suspicion from paranoid and prejudiced locals, Browne founded the True Reformers Bank so that the organization’s finances would be free of scrutiny from White people.

The bank opened its doors in 1889 and went from a small operation in Browne’s house to an institution strong enough to survive the financial panic of 1893. Although the True Reformers Bank continued to operate after Browne’s death in 1897, by 1900 problems were beginning to develop. Under its new president, Reverend William Lee Taylor, branches were poorly regulated, unsecured loans were made, and an embezzlement scandal cost most account holders their savings. By 1910, the State Corporation Commission had ordered the bank to be closed.4

As the story of the True Reformers Bank was playing out, other Black-owned banks were also getting their start in the U.S. The Capitol Savings Bank of Washington, D.C., opened its doors in Oct. 17, 1888, roughly six months before the True Reformers Bank.4 Capitol Savings also managed to survive the the financial panic of 1893, though it later closed in 1902.5 Between 1888 and 1934, more than 134 Black-owned financial institutions were founded, predominantly located in southern states. Their numbers dwindled during the Great Depression, leaving nine by 1930. It wasn’t until the civil rights movement that a resurgence took place, raising their numbers to 50 by 1976. But by 1988, the savings and loan crisis had wiped out 35 Black-owned banks.6 The start of the most recent decline came in 2001, during the early 2000s recession, which rapidly accelerated once the Great Recession began.7 Today—including credit unions—there are 38 Black-owned financial institutions left.8

“You can’t separate Black history from American history,” says Tyrone Ross, community director of Altruist, a software platform provider for financial advisors. “We’ve always been well adept and versed in financial education and the ability to be entrepreneurs. It’s just been stripped from us. So it’s OK to write these articles—or have panels or whatever—but let’s start with the history first so people go, ‘Oh, crap. It really was stripped from them, and they’re just trying to get it back.'”

Modern-Day Discrimination

In 2016, the net worth of a White family was nearly ten times higher on average than that of a Black family. This is a result of inequality, discrimination, racism, and differences in power and opportunity compounding throughout America’s history.9 It also is why the diminishing number of Black-owned banks is especially of concern, given the role these institutions play in fighting modern-day systemic racism in the financial sector.

Consider redlining. This unethical and illegal practice is used to block off access to important services for residents of certain neighborhoods based on their race or ethnicity. Although the Fair Housing Act of 1968 and the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 were both intended to eliminate redlining, this kind of discrimination is still seen today. For instance, 68.1% of loans made between 2012 and 2018 for housing purchases in Chicago went to predominantly White areas; 8.1% went to predominantly Black areas. Banks also lent more money to predominantly White neighborhoods than they did to every predominantly Black neighborhood combined. This disparity is even starker when looking at individual lenders, with JPMorgan Chase lending 41 times more money in White neighborhoods than Black ones.10

Chicago is far from the only place where redlining occurs. In 2018, People of Color in 61 cities were more likely to be denied home loans than White residents.11 And if homeowners aren’t moving into—and investing in—a neighborhood, it means capital isn’t flowing into the community, which leads to poverty and crime having an inescapable presence in the area.10

“One in five Black Americans now is unbanked. When you look at our poverty rates, our lack of ownership, lack of home ownership, that all goes back to economic empowerment,” Ross explains. “Economic empowerment starts with banking.”

The Importance of Black-Owned Banks

To understand why Black-owned banks matter, it’s critical to recognize the role banks play in financial life. A common service banks provide is access to a checking account, allowing for the safe storage of an individual’s funds, typically in exchange for a minimal fee. In addition to accepting monetary deposits, banks also furnish loans for both individuals and businesses looking to finance crucial purchases, in addition to mortgages for real estate purchases. Many banks also issue credit cards, which are valuable tools for building the credit history necessary to receive most loans.

Outside of providing financial services, a number of banks have also launched programs on financial literacy for low- and moderate-income communities.12 It’s difficult, if not impossible, to imagine thriving in the modern economy without taking advantage of the aid that a bank can provide. And if access to these types of services is constantly denied to certain groups, it’s easy to see how these groups may face more financial difficulties than others.

Black-owned banks offer an alternative for residents who have been consistently discriminated against by other financial institutions. They have typically provided more money to borrowers living in low- and moderate-income (LMI) census tracts in the last 14 years than other banks. Black-owned banks are also more willing to tolerate higher levels of risk than alternative institutions. In 2016, 67% of mortgages made by Black-owned banks were either FHA mortgages—which typically serve riskier borrowers—or mortgages held “in portfolio,” meaning they are liable to the risk of the borrower defaulting.13

Additionally, Black-owned banks tend to focus their lending on small businesses, non-profits, and Black homebuyers. As of 2018, all Black-owned banks are community banks; these institutions are dedicated to supporting the economies of the communities in which they serve. Even during difficult times, Black-owned banks have stuck by their customers. During the 2007–2008 financial crisis, despite a 69% drop in all mortgage lending to Black borrowers, the number of mortgages Black-owned banks provided rose 57%.14

“So there’s lack of lending, there’s lack of funding, there’s lack of access to the ability to acquire assets and build wealth,” says Ross. “The Black community has for years been afraid of banking with traditional institutions. A lot of them live in banking deserts where there are no banks, which is also why you have credit unions, check cashing places, and payday loans.”

Without Black-owned banks, countless vulnerable consumers could be forced to rely on high-interest loans from pawn shops and payday lenders for their financing. What’s more, Black-owned banks provide customers not just access to the financial resources they need, but the chance to invest in the financial health and wellbeing of their community and fellow Americans.

“I think we have a responsibility now to realize that—if you really want to be grassroots, and you really want to help Black Americans—get that money in Black banks and then have those Black banks fund the people,” Ross says.

Other Alternatives for Community Funding

Not everyone sees Black-owned for-profit banks as the solution. Critics argue that true financial justice requires institutions that are entirely separate from a financial system rooted in racism and exploitation.15

“I’ve been very critical of for-profit Black banks and the capitalist logic that governs them,” says Prof. Guy Mount, assistant professor of African American history at Auburn University. “In my opinion, member-owned credit unions and nonprofit co-ops are the way forward for Black communities hoping to not only survive within capitalism, but build a viable Black economic alternative to it.” In fact, that choice is currently available to consumers. Of the 38 Black-owned financial institutions in the U.S.—all listed below—19 are credit unions.

Other critics have taken this concept even further. In The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap, Mehrsa Baradaran, professor of law at University of California Irvine School of Law, posits that those in power have pushed the idea of Black-owned banks as a diversionary tactic whenever the African American community demanded more direct solutions to the racial wealth gap. For instance, although the Freedman’s Bank remains a critical facet of Black history, the Freedman’s Bureau originally proposed providing newly freed slaves with an allotment of land—they received a bank instead.16

More recently, when civil rights leaders began calling for a redistribution of wealth, President Nixon co-opted the rhetoric of that same movement to create a civil rights platform centered around “Black capitalism.” He wasn’t the only president to support the idea of banking over financial support. President Clinton introduced legislation with the aim of promoting “community empowerment” via banking. Across party lines, Presidents Bush and Obama supported and upheld Clinton’s infrastructure. President Trump has also made similar promises during his time in office.17

Baradaran further argues that—as it is nearly impossible for a segregated community to keep its wealth entirely self-contained—Black-owned banks may actually facilitate the flow of money out of African American communities and into the White economy.18

Prof. Mount sees it the same way: “By emerging themselves within a White-governed capitalist marketplace, Black banks are facilitating the very extraction of wealth from the communities they purport to serve,” he says.

Black-Owned Banks: State-By-State Breakdown

Alabama

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Alamerica Bank: Birmingham20
  • Citizens Trust Bank: Birmingham and Eutaw21
  • Commonwealth National Bank: Mobile22
  • Liberty Bank: Montgomery and Tuskegee23 24

Alaska

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Arizona

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Arkansas

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

California

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations, in addition to the Corporate Office and Crenshaw Branch,as well as the upcoming Compton Branch19
  • Broadway Federal Bank: Los Angeles25

Colorado

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Connecticut

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Delaware

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

District of Columbia

  • Industrial Bank: District of Columbia (Anacostia Gateway Banking Center, Ben’s Chili Bowl, DC Court of Appeals, DC Superior Court, F Street Banking Center, Forestville Banking Center, Georgia Avenue Banking Center, J.H. Mitchell Banking Center, Nationals Park, Oxon Hill Banking Center, U Street Banking Center26
  • Howard University Employees Federal Credit Union: C B Powell Building27

Florida

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations, in addition to the Miami Branch19
  • FAMU Federal Credit Union: Tallahassee28

Georgia

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Carver State Bank: Savannah29
  • Citizens Trust Bank: Atlanta, Decatur, East Point, Lithonia, Stone Mountain, Stonecrest21
  • Unity National Bank: Atlanta30
  • 1st Choice Credit Union: Atlanta31
  • Credit Union of Atlanta: Atlanta32
  • Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Federal Credit Union: Toccoa33

Hawaii

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Idaho

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Illinois

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • GN Bank: Chicago34
  • Liberty Bank: Forest Park35
  • South Side Community Federal Credit Union: Chicago36

Indiana

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Iowa

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Kansas

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Liberty Bank: Kansas City37

Kentucky

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Liberty Bank: Louisville38

Louisiana

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Liberty Bank: Baton Rouge and New Orleans39 40
  • Southern Teachers & Parents Federal Credit Union: Baton Rouge and Thibodaux41

Maine

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Maryland

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • The Harbor Bank of Maryland: Baltimore, Randallstown, and Silver Spring42

Massachusetts

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations, in addition to the Corporate Headquarters and the Roxbury Branch19

Michigan

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • First Independence Bank: Clinton Township and Detroit43
  • Liberty Bank: Detroit44

Minnesota

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Mississippi

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Liberty Bank: Jackson45

Missouri

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Liberty Bank: Kansas City46
  • St. Louis Community Credit Union: Ferguson, Florissant, Pagedale, Richmond Heights, St. John, St. Louis, University City, and Wellston47

Montana

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Nebraska

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Nevada

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

New Hampshire

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

New Jersey

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Industrial Bank: Newark26

New Mexico

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

New York

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Carver Federal Savings Bank: Brooklyn, Jamaica, and New York City48
  • Industrial Bank: New York City49
  • Urban Upbound Federal Credit Union: Long Island City50

North Carolina

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Mechanics & Farmers Bank: Charlotte,Durham, Greensboro, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem51
  • First Legacy Community Credit Union: Charlotte52
  • Greater Kinston Credit Union: Kinston53

North Dakota

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Ohio

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Faith Community United Credit Union: Cleveland54
  • Toledo Urban Federal Credit Union: Toledo55

Oklahoma

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Oregon

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Pennsylvania

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • United Bank of Philadelphia: Philadelphia56
  • Hill District Federal Credit Union: Pittsburgh57

Rhode Island

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

South Carolina

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Brookland Federal Credit Union: West Columbia58
  • Community Owned Federal Credit Union: Charleston59

South Dakota

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Tennessee

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Citizens Bank: Memphis and Nashville60
  • Tri-State Bank: Memphis61

Texas

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Unity National Bank: Houston and Missouri City30
  • Faith Cooperative Credit Union: Dallas62
  • Mount Olive Baptist Church Federal Credit Union: Dallas63
  • Oak Cliff Christian Federal Credit Union: Dallas64

Utah

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Vermont

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Virginia

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Virginia State University Federal Credit Union: South Chesterfield65

Washington

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

West Virginia

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19

Wisconsin

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations19
  • Columbia Savings & Loan: Milwaukee66

Wyoming

  • OneUnited Bank: Multiple ATM locations67

Additional Details on America’s Black-Owned Banks

While the number of Black-owned financial institutions may have declined from their peak, they cumulatively have a not-insignificant presence.68 Taken together, the 38 Black-owned banks in the U.S. have approximately $5.135 billion in assets. And although 28 states have no Black-owned financial institutions within their borders, several organizations have a presence across the U.S. because of their partnerships with major ATM networks. Additionally, of the 38 Black-owned financial institutions in the country, exactly half are not-for-profit credit unions.8

The majority of Black-owned institutions offer both traditional brick-and-mortar branches and online/mobile services. Even OneUnited Bank, originally an Internet-only bank, now has multiple physical locations across the U.S.69 19 Ensuring online accessibility is a smart move considering that, in 2017, approximately 17.7% of African-American consumers were more likely to use mobile banking as their primary method of accessing their accounts.70 Currently, Columbia Savings and Loan is the sole institution without any online or mobile banking services.66

Below: a list of Black-owned banks and credit unions in the U.S., in alphabetical order.

1st Choice Credit Union

Founded in 1946, the Hospital Authority Credit Union was created to provide financial services to employees of Grady Hospital. In 1991, the organization became known as 1st Choice Credit Union.71

  • Branches: Auburn Avenue Administrative Office (Atlanta, Ga.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (Atlanta, Ga.)31
  • ATMs: Crestview Health & Rehabilitation Center (Atlanta, Ga.) and Ponce De Leon Center (Atlanta, Ga.)31
  • States: Georgia31
  • Services: Personal and business checking and savings, in addition to loans (personal, mortgage, etc.)72 73
  • Assets: $25.19 million74
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar31 75

Alamerica Bank

Alamerica Bank was originally organized by a group of prominent Birmingham, Ala., community leaders on Jan. 28, 2000. Alamerica achieved operational profitability after six months of operation.76

  • Branches: The Alamerica Bank Building (Birmingham, Ala.)20
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Alabama20
  • Services: Deposit services (business and personal accounts), loan services (commercial and personal loans), Internet banking, image statements, and MasterMoney debit cards77 78 79
  • Assets: $18.912 million80
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar20 79

Broadway Federal Bank

The Broadway Federal Bank is a subsidiary of Broadway Financial Corporation, a bank holding company located in Los Angeles, Calif. Formerly known as the Broadway Federal Savings and Loan Association, founded in 1946, the original building was destroyed by a fire on April 30, 1992. In Dec. 1995, the organization was converted from a federally chartered mutual savings association to a federally chartered stock savings bank, hence the new name.81

  • Branches: Mid-Wilshire Branch (Los Angeles, Calif.), Inglewood Branch (Inglewood, Calif.), and Exposition Park Branch (Los Angeles, Calif.)25
  • ATMs: Part of the MoneyPass network25
  • States: California25
  • Services: Personal and business accounts, credit cards, and loan products82
  • Assets: $415 million83
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar25 84

Brookland Federal Credit Union

Founded in 1999, the Brookland Federal Credit Union is a not-for-profit financial cooperative that provides financial services to members of Brookland Baptist Church and their immediate family members.85 If you join Brookland Federal, you and your family have a lifetime membership.86

  • Branches: Brookland Federal Credit Union (West Columbia, S.C.)58
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: South Carolina58
  • Services: Savings, checking, loans, and other services (financial literacy, guaranteed auto protection, etc.)87 88 89 90
  • Assets: $3.4 million86
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar58 91

Carver Federal Savings Bank

The Carver Federal Savings Bank was founded in 1948 to serve African American communities with limited access to mainstream financial services. The majority of its branches and ATMs are located in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods.92

  • Branches: Atlantic Terminal Branch (Brooklyn, N.Y.), Bedford-Stuyvesant – Restoration Plaza Branch (Brooklyn, N.Y.), Crown Heights Branch (Brooklyn, N.Y.), Flatbush Branch (Brooklyn, N.Y.), and St Albans Branch (Jamaica, N.Y.), 125th Street Branch (New York City, N.Y.), and Malcolm X Boulevard Branch (New York City, N.Y.))48
  • ATMs: Atlantic Terminal Shopping Mall (2) (Brooklyn, N.Y.) and ATM Banking Center (Brooklyn, N.Y.)48
  • States: New York48
  • Services: Personal and business banking, loans, and community cash93 94 95 96
  • Assets: $581.718 million97
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar48 98

Carver State Bank

Established on Feb. 23, 1927, the Georgia Savings and Realty Corporation was a small, private bank as well as a real estate investment and management company. In 1947, the original institution was converted to a state bank and became known as the Carver Savings Bank. By 1962, Carver had become a full-service commercial bank, thus its name was changed once more to the Carver State Bank.99

  • Branches: Main Office (Savannah, Ga.) and Skidaway Branch (Savannah, Ga.)29
  • ATMs: Main Office (Savannah, Ga.), Skidaway Branch (Savannah, Ga.), and Hilton Head International Airport (Savannah, Ga.)29
  • States: Georgia29
  • Services: Personal accounts (checking and savings), business accounts, loans, development programs, and other services (cashier’s checks, money orders, etc.)100 101 102 103 104 105
  • Assets: $46.124 million106
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar48 107

Citizens Bank

In 1904, the One Cent Savings Bank became the first minority-owned bank in Tennessee. The institution’s name was changed to the Citizens Savings Bank & Trust Co. in 1920. Citizens Bank is the oldest, continuously operating Black-owned bank in the U.S.108

  • Branches: Memphis Winchester Road Branch (Memphis, Tenn.) and Main Office (Nashville, Tenn.)60
  • ATMs: Main Office (Nashville, Tenn.)60
  • States: Tennessee60
  • Services: Personal and business banking (checking and savings), credit cards, and loans (personal, business, etc.)109
  • Assets: $100 million110
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar60 111

Citizens Trust Bank

Since 1921, the Citizens Trust Bank was created to serve the African American citizens of Atlanta. Today the organization plays an active role in providing sponsorship support for multiple community organizations.112

  • Branches: Birmingham (Birmingham, Ala.), Eutaw Branch (Eutaw, Ala.), Cascade Branch (Atlanta, Ga.), Corporate Headquarters (Atlanta, Ga.), Westside Branch (Atlanta, Ga.), East Point Branch (East Point, Ga.), and Rockbridge Branch (Stone Mountain, Ga.)21
  • ATMs: Castleberry Inn ATM (Atlanta, Ga.), Westside ATM (Atlanta, Ga.), South Dekalb Mall ATM (Decatur, Ga.), Lithonia ATM (Lithonia, Ga.), Rockbridge Plaza ATM (Stone Mountain, Ga.), Stone Mountain ATM (Stone Mountain, Ga.), and Panola ATM (Stonecrest, Ga.)21
  • States: Alabama and Georgia21
  • Services: Banking (savings, checking, etc.) and borrowing (loans, credit cards, etc.) services113 114
  • Assets: $444.324 million115
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar21 116

Columbia Savings & Loan

Columbia Savings & Loan has served Milwaukee’s inner city, particularly its minority population, since 1924. 66

  • Branches: Columbia Savings & Loan Association (Milwaukee, Wis.)66
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Wisconsin66
  • Services: Mortgages, church loans, and CDs/IRAs66
  • Assets: $22.758 million117
  • Availability: Brick-and-mortar only66

Commonwealth National Bank

Founded in 1976, the Commonwealth National Bank is a full-service nationally chartered commercial institution. Commonwealth is the sole bank headquartered in Mobile, out of the 45 banks doing business there. In addition to being the only Minority Depository Institution (MDI) in Mobile, it is one of two in Alabama.118

  • Branches: Main Office Branch (Mobile, Ala.) and Crichton Branch (Mobile, Ala.)22
  • ATMs: Main Office Branch (Mobile, Ala.), Crichton Branch (Mobile, Ala.), any Publix Super Market ATM, and any PNC Bank ATM119
  • States: Alabama22
  • Services: Consumer and business services, in addition to loans120 121
  • Assets: $47.609 million122
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar22 123

Community Owned Federal Credit Union

In 1966, the Community Owned Federal Credit Union was founded to provide low-income communities in Johns Island and part of Charleston with financial services typically denied to them by mainstream institutions. Membership has since grown to include the entire Charleston area.124

  • Branches: Community Owned Federal Credit Union (Charleston, S.C.)59
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: South Carolina59
  • Services: Primary savings account, loans, mortgages, and other services (direct and payroll deposit, in addition to credit workshops)125
  • Assets: $6.14 million126
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar59 127

Credit Union of Atlanta

Founded in 1928, the Credit Union of Atlanta remained stable and secure throughout the Great Depression. Any profits earned are used to secure better rates for the institution’s members.128

  • Branches: Main Office (Atlanta, Ga.) and Pryor Street Lending Center (Atlanta, Ga.)32
  • ATMs: Atlanta Detention Center (Atlanta, Ga.), Atlanta Public Safety Annex (Atlanta, Ga.), Credit Union of Atlanta (Atlanta, Ga.), Pryor Street Lending Center (Atlanta, Ga.), in addition to any ATMs in the MoneyPass and STAR networks32 129
  • States: Georgia32
  • Services: Personal savings and checking, credit builder and personal loans, and payment protection130 131 132 133 134
  • Assets: $66.604 million135
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar32 136

Faith Community United Credit Union

Originally chartered in 1952 as Mount Sinai Baptist Church Credit Union, Faith became a Community Development Credit Union (CDCU) in 1991. In 1989, the credit union became the sole provider of financial services when the savings and loans closed in local minority neighborhoods. Faith attained self-sufficiency a year after acquiring its community charter.137

  • Branches: Faith Community United Credit Union (Cleveland, Ohio)54
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Ohio54
  • Services: Deposit services, loan services, and insurance138 139 140
  • Assets: $14.035 million141
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar54 142

Faith Cooperative Credit Union

The story of the Faith Cooperative Credit Union is a tale of two different organizations. St. John Federal Credit Union was founded in 1959. It became known as the Faith Cooperative Credit Union after it was integrated with the Friendship-West Baptist Church’s vision of a micro loan bank.143

  • Branches: Administrative Offices (Dallas, Texas)62
  • ATMs: One located “near the Banquet Hall”144
  • States: Texas62
  • Services: Savings, loans, and gap protection145 146
  • Assets: $1.528 million147
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar62 148

FAMU Federal Credit Union

On May 8, 1935, six individuals were convinced to deposit $50 to acquire a federal credit union charter, resulting in the founding of the Florida A&M College Employees Federal Credit Union. By 1953, the organization renamed to Florida A&M University Federal Credit Union due to its location on the FAMU campus.149

  • Branches: Office (Tallahassee, Fla.)28
  • ATMs: One located in thefirst drive-thru lane”as well asany ATMs that are part of the American Express, CULIANCE, The Exchange, Honors, Member Access, Plus, Presto, Publix, Walmart, and “other Credit Unions with the participating listed networks”150
  • States: Florida149
  • Services: Accounts (checking, savings, IRA), Rattler debit and VISA credit cards, loans, wire transfers, and other services (notary services, bill payments, etc.)151
  • Assets: $20.24 million152
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar28 153

First Independence Bank

Having been in business since May 11, 1970, the First Independence Bank has served the Detroit Metropolitan area for 50 years. First Independence is the sole African American‐owned bank headquartered in Michigan, in addition to being one of two banks headquartered in Detroit.154

  • Branches: Clinton Township Branch (Clinton Township, Mich.), Main Office Branch (Detroit, Mich.), and Seven Mile Branch (Detroit, Mich.)43
  • ATMs: Garfield Branch (Clinton Township, Mich.), 1st Floor International Building (Detroit, Mich.), City County Building (Detroit, Mich.), Livernois (Detroit, Mich.), and Main Office Branch (Detroit, Mich.), Seven Mile Branch (Detroit, Mich.), in addition to “any nationwide … Fifth Third, TCF, or Chemical Bank ATM … in the Metro Detroit area”155
  • States: Michigan43
  • Services: Consumer and business services, in addition to loans156 157
  • Assets: $265.354 million158
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar43 159

First Legacy Community Credit Union

The School Workers Federal Credit Union was founded by a group of educators in Feb. 14, 1941. Originally, the institution that eventually became First Legacy Community only offered a savings and loan program; today it offers a much wider selection of financial services.160

  • Branches: First Legacy Community Credit Union (Charlotte, N.C.)52
  • ATMs: Part of the CO-OP/Covera ATM network161
  • States: North Carolina52
  • Services: Checking, savings, loans, and other services (quarterly statements, NADA auto valuations, etc.)161
  • Assets: $29.331 million162
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar52 161

GN Bank

In 1934—after working closely with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago—13 African-American men founded Illinois Service Federal to provide a savings and loan association for Black Chicagoans. The institution was acquired by Groupe Ndoum in 2016, which led to its name change to GN Bank in 2018.163

  • Branches: Main Branch (Chicago, Ill.) and Chatham Office (Chicago, Ill.)34
  • ATMs: Main Branch (Chicago, Ill.) and Chatham Office (Chicago, Ill.), in addition to any ATMs in the STAR network.164
  • States: Illinois34
  • Services: Personal (checking, savings, and credit cards) and small business services (checking, lending, credit cards)165
  • Assets: $133 million163
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar34 166

Greater Kinston Credit Union

The Greater Kinston Credit Union was founded in 1952 and provides a variety of loans and deposit accounts.167 Persons who live, work, worship, or attend functions in the Lenoir, Greene, Jones, Craven, and Pitt counties are eligible for membership.168

  • Branches: Branch Office (Kinston, N.C.)53
  • ATMs: Part of the CashPoints network169
  • States: North Carolina53
  • Services: Debit and credit cards; deposit (checking, savings, etc.), non-profit, and youth accounts; mortgage and personal lending; and other services (automated services, branch services, etc.)170
  • Assets: $11.624 million171
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar170

Hill District Federal Credit Union

The Hill District Federal Credit Union got its start in 1970 and has provided financial services to its members for 50 years.57 Citizens who live, work, or worship in the Hill District—as well as members of an organization that provides economic assistance in the same area—are eligible to join this institution.172

  • Branches: Hill District Federal Credit Union (Pittsburgh, Pa.)57
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Pennsylvania57
  • Services: Debit and gift cards, savings, checking, loans, other services (money orders, financial literacy classes, etc.)173
  • Assets: $5.61 million174
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar57 173

Howard University Employees Federal Credit Union

Originally chartered on Oct. 11, 1935, the Howard University Employees Federal Credit Union provides financial services to employees of Howard University and their family members.175 Those who join Howard University Employees FCU have a lifetime membership.176

  • Branches: C B Powell Building (Washington D.C.)27
  • ATMs: Part of the CO-OP and CU Here networks177
  • States: Washington D.C.27
  • Services: Accounts (savings, checking, etc.) and loans178 179
  • Assets: $10 million175
  • Availability: Online (home loans only) and brick-and-mortar27 180

Industrial Bank

Industrial Bank first opened on Aug. 20, 1934, and is one of the larger Black-owned banks in the U.S.181 In addition to a wide variety of financial services, Industrial Bank also offers free financial education programs.182

  • Branches: Harlem Banking Center (New York City, N.Y.), Bergen Street Banking Center (Newark, N.J.), Halsey Street Banking Center (Newark, N.J.), Anacostia Gateway Banking Center (Washington D.C.), F Street Banking Center (Washington D.C.), Forestville Banking Center (Washington D.C.), Georgia Avenue Banking Center (Washington D.C.), J.H. Mitchell Banking Center (Washington D.C.), Oxon Hill Banking Center (Washington D.C.), and U Street Banking Center (Washington D.C.)26
  • ATMs: Harlem Office (New York City, N.Y.), Bergen Street Office (Newark, N.J.), Halsey Street Office (Newark, N.J.), Anacostia Gateway Office (Washington D.C.), Ben’s Chili Bowl (Washington D.C.), DC Court of Appeals (Washington D.C.), DC Superior Court (2) (Washington D.C.), F Street Office (Washington D.C.), Forestville Office (Washington D.C.), Georgia Avenue Office (Washington D.C.), J.H. Mitchell Office (Washington D.C.), Nationals Park (Washington D.C.), Oxon Hill Office (Washington D.C.), and U Street Office (Washington D.C.), in addition to any ATMs in the Allpoint network26 183
  • States: New Jersey, New York, and Washington D.C.26
  • Services: Personal (loans, checking, etc.) and business (services, loans, etc.) services184 185
  • Assets: $432 million181
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar26 186

Liberty Bank

Liberty Bank was originally chartered in New Orleans in 1972. After acquiring the United Bank and Trust Company in 2009, its service grew across the Greater New Orleans area. Liberty Bank is the second-largest Black-owned bank in physical footprint, with branches in eight states.8

  • Branches: Montgomery Liberty Bank (Montgomery, Ala.), Tuskegee Liberty Bank (Tuskegee, Ala.), Liberty Bank Forest Park (Forest Park, Ill.), Kansas City Liberty Bank (Kansas City, Kan.), Louisville Liberty Bank (Louisville, Ky.), Southdowns Liberty Bank (Baton Rouge, La.), Southern Heights Liberty Bank (Baton Rouge, La.), Canal Street Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Crowder Blvd Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Franklin Ave Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), General DeGaulle Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Gentilly Blvd Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Woodward Ave Liberty Bank (Detroit, Mich.), Jackson Liberty Bank (Jackson, Miss.), and Kansas City Liberty Bank (Kansas City, Mo.)187
  • ATMs: Montgomery Liberty Bank (Montgomery, Ala.), Tuskegee Liberty Bank (Tuskegee, Ala.), Liberty Bank Forest Park (Forest Park, Ill.), 4850 State Street (Kansas City, Kan.), Southdowns Liberty Bank (Baton Rouge, La.), Southern Heights Liberty Bank (Baton Rouge, La.), 910-B Decatur Street (New Orleans, La.), 2800 Gravier Street (New Orleans, La.), American Can (New Orleans, La.), Canal Street Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), City Hall (New Orleans, La.), Crowder Blvd Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Dillard – Rosenwald Hall (New Orleans, La.), Franklin Rouses (New Orleans, La.), French Market (New Orleans, La.), General DeGaulle Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Gentilly Blvd Liberty Bank (New Orleans, La.), Lafon Nursing Facility (New Orleans, La.), Lockheed Martin Buildings 102 & 350 (New Orleans, La.), Orleans Sheriff (New Orleans, La.), Xavier University (2) (New Orleans, La.), Jackson Evers International Airport (Jackson, Miss.), Jackson Liberty Bank (Jackson, Miss.), Student Center (Jackson, Miss.), Tougaloo College (Jackson, Miss.), and Union Station (Jackson, Miss.)187
  • States: Alabama, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, and Missouri187
  • Services: Personal (checking, savings, etc.), business (checking, savings, etc.), and institutional (cash management, corporate financing, etc.) services188
  • Assets: $624.159 million189
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar187 190

Mechanics & Farmers Bank

Founded in 1907 by nine businessmen, the Mechanics & Farmers Bank is a state-chartered commercial bank. By 1935, M&F Bank became the first lending institution in North Carolina to receive FHA certification. Mechanics & Farmers merged with Fraternal Bank & Trust in 1921 and acquired Mutual Community Savings Bank in 2008.191

  • Branches: Charlotte (Charlotte, N.C.), Corporate Headquarters (Durham, N.C.), Durham Branch – Durham-Chapel Hill Boulevard (Durham, N.C.), Greensboro (Greensboro, N.C.), Raleigh Branch – Rock Quarry Road (Raleigh, N.C.), Winston-Salem (Winston-Salem, N.C.)51
  • ATMs: Durham Branch (Durham, N.C.) and Raleigh Branch – East Hargett Street (Raleigh, N.C.)51
  • States: North Carolina51
  • Services: Personal (checking and savings accounts, loans, etc.) and business (commercial checking and savings, loans, etc.) services, in addition to wealth management192 193
  • Assets: $264.373 million194
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar51 195

Mount Olive Baptist Church Federal Credit Union

It received its Federal Charter on Oct. 21, 1997. The Mount Olive Baptist Church Federal Credit Union is a faith-based, not-for-profit financial institution.196 Mount Olive Baptist Church members and their immediate families are eligible to join this organization.197

  • Branches: Mount Olive Baptist Church FCU (Dallas, Texas)63
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Texas63
  • Services: Loans (auto, unsecured, etc.), savings accounts, direct deposits, and wire transfers198 199 200 201
  • Assets: $7.609 million202
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar63 203

Oak Cliff Christian Federal Credit Union

Officially chartered on Sept. 22, 2008, the Oak Cliff Christian Federal Credit Union is a Christian-based financial institution sponsored by the Oak Cliff Bible Fellowship. Members, employees, students, or family of the Oak Cliff Bible Fellowship (and its subsidiaries) are eligible to join the organization.204

  • Branches: Oak Cliff Christian FCU (Dallas, Texas)64
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Texas64
  • Services: Loans, financial products (IRAs, money market, etc.), direct deposit, money orders, and credit reports205 206 207
  • Assets: $6.343 million208
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar64 207

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Federal Credit Union

Founded in 1986, the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Federal Credit Union is open to members of the fraternity, including its chapters, districts, and other related organizations, and their families, in addition to employees of both the fraternity and credit union itself.209 210

  • Branches: Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Federal Credit Union c/o CAMO (Toccoa, Ga.)33
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Georgia33
  • Services: Accounts (single, joint, etc.), share draft checking, loans, and credit cards211
  • Assets: $1.957 million212
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar33 213

OneUnited Bank

OneUnited Bank is the first online-only Black-owned bank and the largest Black-owned bank in the U.S. Originally founded in 1968 as Unity Bank and Trust Company, OneUnited has financed over $100 million in loans thus far, predominantly in low- to moderate-income communities.69 214

“Everyone is talking about OneUnited Bank now, but what they’re not focusing on with OneUnited Bank is they’re heavily engaged in financial education and financial literacy in the cities that need it most,” Tyrone Ross, community director of Altruist, explains. “So I feel like right now, when you support OneUnited, again you get those end roads into their programs they already have instituted to provide access to financial education and financial literacy.”

  • Branches: Compton Branch (Coming Soon) (Compton, Cali.), Corporate Office and Crenshaw Branch (Los Angeles, Cali.), Miami Branch (Miami, Fla.), Corporate Headquarters (Boston, Mass.), and Roxbury Branch (Roxbury, Mass.)19
  • ATMs: Part of the MoneyPass network19
  • States: California, Florida, and Massachusetts19
  • Services: Checking, savings, and secured VISA credit card215 216 217
  • Assets: $650 million218
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar19 219

South Side Community Federal Credit Union

Since 2004, the South Side Community Federal Credit Union has offered access to credit and savings services for its members, in addition to financial education.220 221 Individuals are eligible for membership if they live, work, worship, attend school, or belong to an organization that is within Chicago’s South Side.222

  • Branches: South Side Community Federal Credit Union (Chicago, Ill.)36
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Illinois36
  • Services: Accounts (savings, checking, etc.), loans (payroll advance, payday alternative, etc.), financial education classes, and other services (transfer sweeps, money orders, etc.)223 224 225 226
  • Assets: $4.35 million227
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar36 228

Southern Teachers & Parents Federal Credit Union

With more than 80 years of service, Southern Teachers & Parents Federal Credit Union provides personalized financial services to its members.229 Those eligible for membership include alumni, employees, parents, and students of Southern University; employees in Assumption, East Baton Rouge, Lafourche, and West Feliciana parishes; employees in Thibodaux and the Lafourche Parish Juvenile Justice Facility; and their family members.230

  • Branches: Main Office (Baton Rouge, La.) and Lafeda Branch (Thibodaux, La.)41
  • ATMs: Part of the CU Alliance network231
  • States: Louisiana41
  • Services: Accounts (checking, savings, and youth), loans, other services (VISA debit and credit cards, financial counseling, etc.)232 233
  • Assets: $28.22 million234
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar41 235

St. Louis Community Credit Union

Originally chartered in 1942 as the Teachers Credit Union, St. Louis Community Credit Union offers both financial services and several programs to support consumers in the local community.236 Individuals who live or work in St. Louis City, Franklin, and St. Louis county in Missouri as well as the St. Clair, Madison, Monroe, and Jersey counties in Illinois are eligible for membership, in addition to their families.237

  • Branches: Ferguson Branch (Ferguson, Mo.), Florissant Branch (Florissant, Mo.), Flower Valley Branch (Florissant, Mo.), Pagedale Branch (Pagedale, Mo.), Richmond Heights (Richmond Heights, Mo.), St. John Branch (St. John), Benton Park Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), Gateway Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), Grace Hill (St. Louis, Mo.), Jennings Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), LifeWise STL (St. Louis, Mo.), Midtown Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), South City (St. Louis, Mo.), Southtown Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), Sullivan Branch (St. Louis, Mo.), University City (University City, Mo.), MET Center (Wellston, Mo.)47
  • ATMs: Part of the CO-OP network238
  • States: Missouri47
  • Services: Loans (auto, personal, etc.), accounts (savings and checking), business development, advocacy, and insurance (life, AD&D, etc.)239 240 241 242 243
  • Assets: $285 million244
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar47 245

The Harbor Bank of Maryland

Originally opening its doors in Sept. 1982, the Harbor Bank of Maryland offers banking and other financial services, primarily in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Harbor Bank was also the first community bank in the U.S. to have an investment subsidiary and the first to receive funding from Fannie Mae via the Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) program.246

  • Branches: Inner Harbor East Office (Baltimore, Md.), Main Office (Baltimore, Md.), Pimlico Office (Baltimore, Md.), Research Park Office (Baltimore, Md.), The Harbor Science & Technology Park East Branch (Baltimore, Md.),Randallstown Office (Randallstown, Md.), and Silver Spring (Silver Spring, Md.)42
  • ATMs: Inner Harbor East Office (Baltimore, Md.), Main Office (Baltimore, Md.), Pimlico Office (Baltimore, Md.), Research Park Office (Baltimore, Md.), The Harbor Science & Technology Park East Branch (Baltimore, Md.),Randallstown Office (Randallstown, Md.), and Silver Spring (Silver Spring, Md.), in addition to any ATMS in the AllPoint network247
  • States: Maryland42
  • Services: Personal (checking, mortgages, etc.) and business (checking, savings, etc.) banking, in addition to loans (personal, mortgage, and business)248
  • Assets: $282.193 million249
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar250

Toledo Urban Federal Credit Union

Toledo Urban Federal Credit Union originally opened its doors on July 21, 1996, to help its members achieve economic empowerment. Membership in Toledo’s first community development credit union is available for individuals who live, work, worship, perform volunteer services, or participate in associations headquartered in the central city community, in addition to their families.251

  • Branches: Nexus Building (Toledo, Ohio) and Toledo Urban Federal Credit Union (Toledo, Ohio)55
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: Ohio55
  • Services: Checking and share accounts, loans (personal, tuition, etc.), credit and ATM/debit cards, credit counseling, and other services (notary service, overdraft protection, etc.)252
  • Assets: $6 million251
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar55 253

Tri-State Bank

In the first 10 years after its founding in 1946, Tri-State Bank of Memphis made more than $10 million in first mortgage loans on homes, representing home ownership for more than 2,000 African American families. Tri-State has also played a critical part in the civil rights movement, including hosting local sit-ins in the bank’s boardroom, providing bail money for protesters, and providing $60,000 in loans to help save the Lorraine Motel, the site of Dr. Martin Luther King’s assassination, from foreclosure in 1982.254

  • Branches: Whitehaven (Memphis, Tenn.)61
  • ATMs: Whitehaven (Memphis, Tenn.) and any ATMs in the Money Tower network61
  • States: Tennessee61
  • Services: Personal (checking, savings, etc.), business (checking, savings, etc.), loans (auto, mortgage, etc.), and other services (financial education, Fraud Center, etc.)255
  • Assets: $111 million254
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar61 256

United Bank of Philadelphia

Originally founded in 1992, United Bank of Philadelphia offers personalized banking services in the Greater Philadelphia area to both individuals and businesses.257 By providing financing to small businesses in urban areas, United Bank supports their growth and allows them to create jobs with livable wages, thus improving the economic condition of those working in the local community.258

  • Branches: Center City (Philadelphia, Pa.) and Progress Plaza (Philadelphia, Pa.)56
  • ATMs: C-Town Supermarket (Philadelphia, Pa.), City Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.), Criminal Justice Center (Philadelphia, Pa.), Masjidullah Inc. (Philadelphia, Pa.), Philadelphia Traffic Court (Philadelphia, Pa.), Police Districts (Philadelphia, Pa.), Revolutions at Penn Treaty (Philadelphia, Pa.), The Fillmore-Philadelphia (Philadelphia, Pa.), and West Philadelphia (Philadelphia, Pa.)56
  • States: Pennsylvania56
  • Services: Personal and business banking (checking, savings, etc.), in addition to loans (SBA and commercial loans)259
  • Assets: $45.547 million260
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar56 261

Unity National Bank

The bank was founded in 1963 and chartered in 1985. “In February 1989, through a series of transactions and diligent efforts, it was acquired from Bay Bancshares by local minority leaders,” the bank’s history reports. Unity focuses on helping to rebuild the community with an emphasis on commercial loans and mortgages. It also works closely with civic organizations and agencies, such as the NAACP and the Third Ward Redevelopment Council.262

  • Branches: Atlanta (Atlanta, Ga.) Blodgett (Houston, Texas), and Fort Bend (Missouri City, Texas)30
  • ATMs: Atlanta (Atlanta, Ga.) Blodgett (Houston, Texas), and Fort Bend (Missouri City, Texas), in addition to any ATMs in the Select network263
  • States: Georgia and Texas30
  • Services: Business and personal services (loans, checking and savings accounts, etc.)264
  • Assets: $107.905 million265
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar30 266

Urban Upbound Federal Credit Union

Urban Upbound was founded in 2004, to provide five integrated programs to individuals living in public housing and and other low- and moderate-income neighborhoods.267 The Urban Upbound Federal Credit Union offers affordable financial services to its members.268

  • Branches: Urban Upbound Federal Credit Union (Long Island City, N.Y.)50
  • ATMs: N/A
  • States: New York50
  • Services: Savings, share certificates, as well as personal and small business loans269
  • Assets: $1.06 million270
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar50

Virginia State University Federal Credit Union

Authority to establish the Virginia State College Federal Credit Union was granted on Oct. 19, 1938. On May 22, 1979, the organization’s board of directors voted to change the name to the Virginia State University Federal Credit Union.271

  • Branches: Virginia State University Federal Credit Union (South Chesterfield, Va.)65
  • ATMs: Virginia State University Federal Credit Union (South Chesterfield, Va.)272
  • States: Virginia65
  • Services: Loans, accounts (checking, savings, etc.), insurance, and other services (wire transfer, direct deposit, etc.)273 274 275
  • Assets: $9.09 million276
  • Availability: Online and brick-and-mortar65 277

READ MORE AT: https://www.investopedia.com/bla

ck-owned-banks-by-state-5024944

Biden’s “Lift Every Voice” Proposal Appeals to Black Misleaders

Black Agenda Radio with Margaret Kimberley and Glen Ford

11 May 2020

Black Alliance for Peace national organizer Ajamu Baraka said de facto Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden’s “Lift Every Voice” plan for Black America “assumes that all you have to do is provide a few little tweeks to the system and everything will be just fine.” But, “the US economy has collapsed and the impact on Black workers is profound.” Baraka, the 2016 Green Party vice presidential candidate, said only the Black Misleadership Class will sing the praises of Biden’s “symbolic, paternalistic crumbs.”

READ MORE AT: https://www.blackagendareport.com/bidens-lift-every-voice-proposal-appeals-black-misleaders

When Maternity Wards in Black Neighborhoods Disappear

Experts fear that closures will become a trend nationwide because of the covid-19 virus, devastating an already vulnerable population

Dr. Joi Bradshaw-Terrell provides obstetric care to the majority-black population in Chicago’s Englewood neighborhood, where three nearby maternity wards have shut down in the past year.
Dr. Joi Bradshaw-Terrell provides obstetric care to the majority-black population in Chicago’s Englewood neighborhood, where three nearby maternity wards have shut down in the past year. Credit…Joshua Lott for The New York Times

By Kelly GlassMay 5, 2020

Shamya Bland had both of her children at St. Bernard Hospital in the Englewood neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago. When she found out the hospital would stop delivering babies until further notice “to respond more effectively to the increase in patients who are sick with the Covid-19 coronavirus,” according to an announcement issued on its Facebook page, she was devastated. “It’s heartbreaking,” she said. “It’s in the heart of the hood. Most black people in the neighborhood were going to go there.”

Englewood, which is 95 percent black, is slowly becoming a maternity-care desert, with two other nearby hospitals closing their maternity wards within the past year. St. Bernard Hospital has coordinated transporting women in labor to Mercy Hospital, about six miles north, according to St. Bernard’s media relations representative David Rudd, but transportation is not the main concern for doctors and patients in the neighborhood.

Research has shown that black patients receive better care and communication when they see black doctors. Official statistics weren’t available, but St. Bernard boasts a racially diverse care team, according to staff members like Dr. Joi Bradshaw-Terrell, M.D., an OB-GYN. “There’s a trust factor,” Dr. Bradshaw-Terrell said. “We have black men and women taking care of you. We got you.”

Black women in America are three times more likely to die of pregnancy- and childbirth-related causes than white women are, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Chicago, that tragic disparity doubles, with black women six times more likely than white women to die because of pregnancy and childbirth and even more experiencing injury or trauma.

Bland, 24, came back to Chicago to give birth after moving more than two hours west to a town near the border of Iowa, seeking a doctor she could trust. “I was five months pregnant and having heart palpitations. I knew something wasn’t right, and my doctor kept telling me it was fine,” she said. He told her it was her weight and her heart “pumping for two.”

Bland drove to St. Bernard Hospital to see a black doctor, who quickly ordered EKGs and a CT scan and told her she had a heart condition — the leading cause of maternal death. “I was out there with new doctors and new faces, and I was kind of getting blown off,” she said. “But here I got taken care of and treated as if I actually mattered.”

Her story could have ended differently, and she’s concerned for the fate of the women in Chicago’s South Side neighborhood whose birth stories will soon unfold in a different hospital than they originally planned. Dr. Bradshaw-Terrell shares that concern.

“It’s a big disadvantage to our population in Englewood,” she said. “Black women have more pre-eclampsia, more hypertension, gestational diabetes. People here are high-risk, and to feel like you have abandoned them is a horrible feeling.”

A 2019 study, among others, found that patient outcomes are better when hospitals not only understand but also focus on the experiences of the communities and populations they serve as part of the care they give. Racial bias in health care and consequently black people’s distrust of the health care system are well documented. Hospitals in black communities that employ black doctors and health care workers combat this by reimagining health care to fit the needs of their population, Dr. Bradshaw-Terrell said.

“Half of the time I’m basically a social worker and a psychologist. If you don’t have water at home, I’ll bring you a case of water,” she said. “I don’t have to do that, but these are real-life issues.”

Disregarding the importance of race, poverty, gender and other social factors on health outcomes makes it all too easy for institutions to prioritize the financial bottom line over saving lives, say those who track the connection between race and health outcomes.

Andre Perry, a fellow in the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution think tank and author of “Know Your Price: Valuing Black Lives and Property in America’s Black Cities,”said that as the coronavirus pandemic moves the United States into an economic downturn, cities and states will start looking to cut budgets.

“They’ll create austerity measures,” Perry said. “Oftentimes that means shutting down resources or assets in the black community. Black people and our assets are sort of like sacrificial lambs of this virus.”

Budget-driven closures of both urban and rural hospitals have plagued communities nationwide over the past decade. Since 2010, nearly 130 rural hospitals have closed, leading to an increase in births without proper obstetric care and preterm births in rural areas.

Dr. Laurie Zephyrin, M.D., vice president of delivery system reform at the Commonwealth Fund, an independent health care research foundation, said inner-city hospitals and safety-net hospitals (which see patients regardless of financial or insurance status) tend to run on tight operating margins, putting some of their health care services at risk. “When it becomes about funding and it becomes a budget issue, they forget about the people we’re trying to serve,” Dr. Zephyrin said.

It’s the people — the black women living in neighborhoods marked by poverty, violence and the chronic stress they both cause — that Dr. Bradshaw-Terrell worries about most. “I have a lot of patients say if they wanted to deliver at another hospital, they would have gotten care there. They trust me. They know we’re going to take care of them, and now we can’t,” she said, expressing concern that some patients might skip out on prenatal appointments altogether and show up at an unfamiliar hospital while in labor.

READ MORE AT: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/05/parenting/coronavirus-black-maternal-mortality.html

How to Fight the Black Tax

How to Fight the Black Tax

Author and personal finance consultant Shawn Rochester, ’02, discusses how to address the financial costs of conscious and unconscious anti-black discrimination.

Personal finance consultant Shawn Rochester, ’02, noticed something curious about the many studies and articles written about racial discrimination.

“Over the years I would read articles and studies about discrimination against black people in various markets—for example, housing, automotive, financial services, the job search, etc.—and the impact of that discrimination just seemed like a tax to me,” he said.

Rochester is CEO of Connecticut-based Good Steward LLC, a financial advisory and education company that uses workshops, coaching, and online courses to help people—mainly African Americans, such as Rochester himself—manage cash flow, eliminate debt, and maximize retirement assets. He sees clients who, despite successful careers, aren’t on track to retire in comfort.

“There is a category of folks whom some would consider to have robust incomes, but they lack information about how to maximize their cash flow or how to reduce debt and maximize their assets at retirement by using vehicles like the tax-deferred retirement plans that are already in place for us,” he said. While these people generally don’t have the balance sheet to attract high-quality financial advice or coaching, they actually could accumulate significant resources if they had access to better information. Rochester’s mother faced a similar problem when she emigrated from Barbados to the United States. “She was a motivated saver but didn’t know what to do and wasn’t around people who could give her good advice,” he said.

In helping individuals with their finances, Rochester became concerned with the broader questions of why the African American community had an ingrained deficit in wealth and what individuals could do about it. This led him to write a book, The Black Tax: The Cost of Being Black in America. Rochester spoke with Chicago Booth Magazine’s

CBM: What is the Black Tax?

Rochester: The Black Tax is the financial cost of discrimination against black people in America by people and/or institutions that have conscious or unconscious antiblack bias.

CBM: Why did you decide to write this book?

Rochester: I wrote The Black Tax because I wanted to help reduce the wealth gap by creating a paradigm shift that would help create jobs and businesses, and expand businesses in the black community by increasing the demand for products, services, and intellectual capital from black people and companies. I knew that simply asking people to buy products and services from black-owned companieswould not be very effective because many people view doing business with black entrepreneurs as a charity or a cost. I learned long ago that if you want people to act differently, you must get them to think differently. So I looked at research from the finest institutions in the country to see if I could quantify the financial costs of past and current antiblack discrimination. The results were shocking because the impact, scale, and continuity of antiblack discrimination was and still is far larger than what most people would have expected. This robust, data-driven approach generally helps readers to see the problem with greater clarity and gets them thinking about what they can do to help solve it.

CBM: The problems you describe seem so overwhelming. Where do you even start?

Rochester: Black people in America own just 2 percent of US wealth. This means that 1.4 million businesses with employees, 6 million jobs associated with those businesses, and well over $8 trillion in wealth that should belong to the black community are simply not there. These gaps in jobs, businesses, and wealth are driving almost all of the socioeconomic problems affecting the black community. So yes, these challenges can appear to be overwhelming.

The first thing we should start with is a focus on what we can do together to help close these gaps. In the final section of The Black Tax, I talk about an economic framework called PHD, which stands for “Purchase, Hire, and Deposit” in ways that create jobs and create and expand businesses in the black community. PHD accomplishes this by ensuring that (1) a greater portion of consumer spending is aimed at black enterprise, (2) black people and businesses are properly represented on payrolls and in supply chains, and (3) more resources are placed in black financial institutions to ensure that these businesses have the capital they need to grow.

This is important because Americans spend very little on black enterprise at all. For example, governments spend less than 2 percent of their supply chain expenditures on black businesses. Corporations and institutions spend less than 2 percent of their supply chain expenditures on black businesses, and even black consumers spend about 2 percent of their collective incomes on black business. In addition to this, only about $4 out of every $10,000 in the US banking system is in a black bank. This dearth of spending with black enterprise stifles job creation and business development in the black community. Because spending and investment levels with black enterprise are currently so low, even small changes in our spending and deposit levels can have an enormous impact on job creation.

CBM: What about diversity programs in hiring and purchasing? Are those working?

Rochester: These programs are well-intentioned but have not been particularly effective. As I’ve mentioned, supply chain spending with black business is extremely low, despite decades of efforts and black participation rates in almost all high-growth, high-compensation fields. And even at these very low participation rates, black people earn far less than their white peers, regardless of their education level. It would be a stretch to claim that these programs are working unless your comparison is the Jim Crow period of legal segregation, where black people were barred outright from participating, regardless of skill or competency level. In those days, the supply chain spend with black enterprise was effectively zero and today it is less than 2 percent. Given the data, and the roughly 74 years since the end of the Jim Crow period, one would be hard-pressed to say that these programs are working. Part of the problem is that terms such as diversity, minority, and inclusion, while well-intentioned, do not mean black. Those terms are generally euphemisms for “not white male.” This is why companies can have “effective” diversity programs while having marginal to no impact on creating jobs and businesses in the black community.

For example, a company could decide to create economic opportunities for women by allocating more of their supply chain spend to women-owned businesses, which is a wonderful thing to do. If we look at women-owned businesses that have employees, we find that they generate about $1.2 trillion a year in revenue. But if we ask how much of that revenue is from black-women-owned businesses, we find that it’s less than 2 percent of the total. So for every $100 of incremental supply chain spend on women-owned businesses, it’s not until the 99th dollar that black women see any benefit.

Knowing this information helps decision-makers better understand the true scope of the problem. Because people associate minority, diversity, and inclusion programs with black people, they tend to think that the major beneficiaries of these programs are black people, which is not the case, particularly when it comes to supply chain spending.

CBM: Are there ways to get more African Americans to start more businesses?

Rochester: Yes, we can certainly create more black businesses and service providers, but the issue is, will there be incremental demand for those businesses? While most people focus on the supply side (i.e., creating more black enterprises), and we certainly need that, what I’m trying to do is focus on the demand side (i.e., creating more demand for black businesses), and that requires a paradigm shift from consumers, corporations, institutions, and governments. Research indicates that the level of antiblack bias in America generally ranges from high to very high, and that bias affects just about every facet of our lives, including commerce, and this is a significant hindrance to business development and job creation.

CBM: How do you get people to buy within their own community?

Rochester: If you look at the historical narrative, black people in America have not had the opportunity to create a critical mass of thriving economic enclaves because we were subjected to a particularly brutal and effective form of economic segregation. This impoverished large swaths of the black population. And, in general, when customers are economically deprived, it’s hard for businesses to thrive, and the costs are much higher. This led to a lower concentration of high levels of business success and caused many people to associate lower quality levels with black businesses, which fueled a bias against black enterprise.

Part of what I want to do is shake that kind of biased thinking and behavior by creating a positive association between commercializing black enterprise and facilitating job creation in the black community. The idea is to stimulate the demand for our products and services and provide the capital to finance the resulting growth. This also applies to the black community, since our spending levels on black enterprise are very low. For example, while the purchasing power of the black community is about $1.2 trillion and supports about 24 million jobs in the US economy, less than 2 percent of that spend is on black businesses, and the vast majority of those jobs are outside of the black community. This—coupled with the fact that the vast majority of the companies who are recipients of black consumer spending (and thousands more who are not) do not practice PHD—further depresses job creation and business development in the black community. At the end of the day, a material shift away from the current 2 percent levels will have a massive economic impact by creating more jobs, businesses, and wealth in the black community.

READ MORE AT: https://www.chicagobooth.edu/magazine/blog/2019/shawn-rochester-the-black-tax

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