Black History

Alprentice ‘Bunchy’ Carter ‘would have rode with Nat Turner

by Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali

“If Bunchy had been on the same plantation as Nat Turner, you can believe he would have rode with Nat Turner. That’s the type of person Bunchy was.” – Kumasi

Black Panther Party Deputy Minister of Defense Bunchy Carter
Black Panther Party Deputy Minister of Defense Bunchy Carter

Oct. 12 is the birthday of one of the most talented and promising young men martyred in the massive state repression against the Black Panther Party for Self Defense.

NBC television has resurrected Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter with a series called “Aquarius.” The imperialist media has brought back both Carter and Charles Manson. Carter was an iconic Black revolutionary from Los Angeles. Manson was a cold-blooded serial killer who led the Manson Family that murdered many in California.

Somehow Hollyweird has united these two polar opposites for television. It is not that weird when we understand that these forces are part of the state whose job it is to keep Africa, Africans and all oppressed people confused.

Gerald Horne, who wrote the volume, “Confronting Black Jacobins: The U.S., the Haitian Revolution and the Origins of the Dominican Republic,” taught Carter’s daughter Danon at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and has written extensively on Hollywood. Horne says Hollywood has done a number on Africans in America from “Birth of a Nation” to “Gone with the Wind,” depicting Black women as mammies, servants and sex objects.

Linden Beckford Jr., a graduate of Grambling University, is currently writing a biography of Carter.

Carter is almost forgotten

Unlike Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and George Jackson, Carter has almost been forgotten from the history of Africans in America except for diehards.

Bunchy Carter was a leader of the very strong and influential Black Panther Party in Los Angeles.
Bunchy Carter was a leader of the very strong and influential Black Panther Party in Los Angeles.

Yes, the Fugees – Wyclef Jean, Lauryn Hill and Pras Michel – mention Carter on the 1996 soundtrack film “When We Were Kings” about the famous “Rumble in the Jungle” heavyweight championship match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman, which took place in 1974. And yes, M-1 and stic man of dead prez did “B.I.G. Respect,” a song on their mixtape, “Turn off the Radio,” that mentions Carter. But that is about it.

Who were Carter and John Huggins and why are they important for the 21st century? Carter, then 26 (born Oct. 12, 1942), was assassinated on Jan. 17, 1969, along with John Huggins, 23 (born Feb. 11, 1945), in a Campbell Hall classroom at UCLA in Los Angeles.

The team of Carter and Huggins are interesting for several reasons. Number one, Carter was born in Louisiana but was made in Los Angeles. Huggins was born on the other side of the country in New Haven, Connecticut. Number two, Carter was a product of the Black proletariat while Huggins was from the Black middle class.

One of Huggins’ aunts, Constance Baker Motley (Sept. 14, 1921 – Sept. 28, 2005) was an African born in America whose parents hailed from Nevis in the Caribbean. She was a lawyer, judge, state senator and borough president of Manhattan, New York City. Huggins committed class suicide and he and Carter had no problem working together.

Bunchy Carter, a loving and fearless leader
Bunchy Carter, a loving and fearless leader

It is a tragic coincidence in history that eight years before Carter and Huggins joined the ancestors, Patrice Emery Lumumba, the first democratically elected president of the Congo, Joseph Okito, vice president of the Senate, and Maurice Mpolo, sports and youth minister, were killed in the Congo by an unholy alliance of the CIA, Belgian imperialism and other agents of imperialism headed by Mobuto Sese Seko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, aka Col. Joseph Mobuto, on Jan. 17, 1961.

Carter and Huggins were gunned down by members of the cultural nationalist US Organization. An FBI memo dated Nov. 29, 1968, described a letter that the Los Angeles FBI office intended to mail to the Black Panther Party office.

This letter, which was made to appear as if it had come from the US Organization, described fictitious plans by US to ambush BPP members. The FBI memo stated, “It is hoped this counterintelligence measure will result in an ‘US’ and BPP vendetta.”

Many feel that the leader of US, Ron Karenga, was working for the other side. An article in the Wall Street Journal described Karenga as a thriving businessman, specializing in gas stations, who maintained close ties to Eastern Rockefeller family and LA’s mayor.

Michael Newton pointed out in the volume, “Bitter Grain: Huey P. Newton and the Black Panther Party,” a Wall Street Journal article which reported: “A few weeks after the assassination of Martin Luther King … Mr. Karenga slipped into Sacramento for a private chat with Gov. Reagan, at the governor’s request. The Black nationalist also met clandestinely with Los Angeles police chief Thomas Reddin after Mr. King was killed.”

We need some stronger stuff

At that moment in history, many cultural nationalists maintained that the cultural revolution must take place before a political one could proceed. Huey P. Newton, the co-founder of the Black Panther Party, countered with the view: “We believe that culture itself will not liberate us. We’re going to need some stronger stuff.”

The Black Panther Party led by Newton and Bobby Seale was like the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC). It was an anti-imperialist alliance; many like Carter embraced revolutionary nationalism while others like Newton, George Jackson and Fred Hampton took a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist (MLM) position. Hampton openly said he was fighting for socialism leading to communism.

Carter named Geronimo

In its Feb. 17, 1969, edition, The Black Panther newspaper pays tribute to assassinated leaders Bunchy Carter and John Huggins. Click to enlarge.
In its Feb. 17, 1969, edition, The Black Panther newspaper pays tribute to assassinated leaders Bunchy Carter and John Huggins. Click to enlarge.

Carter was a firm supporter of the Native American struggle. It was Carter who changed Elmer Pratt into Geronimo ji-Jaga Pratt (Sept. 13, 1947 – June 2, 2011) after the great Native American warrior Geronimo, “the one who yawns” (June 1829 – Feb. 17, 1909) was a prominent Apache leader who fought against Mexico and Arizona for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.

Geronimo replaced Carter as the deputy minister of defense of the Southern California Chapter of the BPP after Carter was taken out. Carter left a memo saying his wish was for Geronimo to replace him.

Carter was never known as an anti-Communist. Before joining the Black Panther Party, Carter was recruited by Raymond “Maasi” Hewitt to a Maoist study group called the Red Guard. I was a part of the same group; however, Carter came in after I left Los Angeles.

Carter was influenced by Jean-Jacques Dessalines of Haiti and Dedan Kimathi of the Land and Freedom Army, the so-called Mau Mau. The Los Angeles Chapter under Bunchy’s leadership required that members take the Mau Mau Oath. Here is the Mau Mau Oath:

“I speak the truth and vow before God / And before this movement, / The movement of Unity, / The Unity which is put to the test, / The Unity that is mocked with the name of ‘Mau Mau,’ / That I shall go forward to fight for the land, / The lands of Kirinyaga that we cultivated, / The lands which were taken by the Europeans, / And if I fail to do this, / May this oath kill me, / May this seven kill me, / May this meat kill me.”

Days at Los Angeles City College

Carter and a small segment of people who lived in my area of Los Angeles had an international world view. He was a legendary figure in my neighborhood. After he was released from prison, he attended Los Angeles City College. Carter was my senior and I didn’t meet him until he was released from jail.

He and others, like Sigidi Abdullah and his S.O.S Band, “Take Your Time (Do It Right)”; Rhongea Southern, now Daar Malik El-Bey, who worked closely with Abdullah; Earl Randall, who went on to work with Willie Mitchell at Hi Records and wrote Al Green’s “God Bless Our Love”; Fred Goree, who became Masai Karega Kenyatta and a DJ on WCHB 1440AM in Detroit, went to LACC at the same time.

Sigidi told me that Carter asked him to organize a talent show at LACC. I remember singing the Spinners’ “I’ll Always Love You” at this event. El-Bey was my guitarist.

ltr-from-ericka-huggins-to-john-huggins-before-his-assassination-1969-cy-its-about-time-bpp-archives

Carter’s political consciousness was raised before he joined the Black Panther Party. Kumasi, who Huey P. Newton asked to replace Carter as the leader of the Southern California Chapter of the BPP, talked to me about the LA legend.

Says Kumasi: “When Malcolm X first came to Los Angeles, he built the first outpost right there in our neighborhood. The Mosque (Temple 27) itself was close to us and all of us had visited the Mosque. As a matter of fact, Bunchy and many of the Renegade Slausons (Bunchy had his own set of Slausons inside the Slausons) were the first youth Fruit of Islam (FOI) in LA. Carter was only 15 years old at that moment in history.

Carter was a 20th century renaissance man. He was great at many things and was a poet and a singer. Elaine Brown has written that many Panthers sang together: “John (Huggins) sang bass to my contralto and Bunchy’s falsetto.”

Brown pointed out in her autobiography, “A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story,” how the trio used to sing the Young Hearts’ “I’ve Got Love for My Baby.” He was also a great dancer. David Hilliard maintains that if it were not for racism, Carter may have become an Olympic swimmer.

Brown says while all this is true, Carter was first and foremost a revolutionary. This is extraordinary if you consider that Carter suffered a childhood bout of polio and moved to South Central LA, where his mother, Nola Carter, enrolled him in a “therapeutic” dance class.

Carter’s Louisiana-born mother is still in the land of the living at the time of this writing. She is almost a century old and has lost two sons: Arthur Morris, Carter’s older step brother, acted as Carter’s bodyguard and was the first member of the BPP to lose his life. He was killed in March of 1968. Little Bobby Hutton, who was influenced by Carter, was killed on April 6, 1968. Her youngest son, Kenneth Fati Carter, is currently locked down in Corcoran State Prison in California.

Caffee Greene, mother of Raymond Nat Turner, Black Agenda Report’s poet-in-residence, hired Carter to work at the Teen Post in Los Angeles. Greene first hired Raymond “Masai” Hewitt, who was replaced by Carter. It was at the Teen Post that I first heard Eldridge Cleaver speak. Cleaver and Carter were both Nation of Islam ministers in prison.

The Afrikan Students Union at UCLA keeps alive the memory of Black Panther leaders Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter and John Huggins with an annual commemorative gathering in Campbell Hall Classroom 1201, where they were gunned down, on the anniversary of their assassination on Jan. 17, 1969. At the 2014 gathering, panel member Ericka Huggins, also a leader in the Black Panther Party and widow of the late John Huggins, encouraged them to “make a portal for students way younger than you to be here … Use the skills the university has given you and turn them toward your community … We are all standing on someone’s shoulders; imagine someone is standing on yours.” – Photo: Afrikan Students Union
The Afrikan Students Union at UCLA keeps alive the memory of Black Panther leaders Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter and John Huggins with an annual commemorative gathering in Campbell Hall Classroom 1201, where they were gunned down, on the anniversary of their assassination on Jan. 17, 1969. At the 2014 gathering, panel member Ericka Huggins, also a leader in the Black Panther Party and widow of the late John Huggins, encouraged them to “make a portal for students way younger than you to be here … Use the skills the university has given you and turn them toward your community … We are all standing on someone’s shoulders; imagine someone is standing on yours.” – Photo: Afrikan Students Union

Turner saw the cultural side of Carter: “Yeah, I heard Bunchy sing Stevie’s ‘I’m Wondering’ and ‘I Was Made to Love Her,’ and I used to hear Tommy (Lewis) play piano at the Teen Post my mom directed. … It was also fun to watch Bunchy dance – Philly Dog, Jerk and Twine … a lil’ ‘Bitter Dog’ with the Philly Dog every once in a while … ‘Bebop Santa from the Cool North Pole’ and ‘Black Mother’ were also great to hear.” Tommy Lewis, Robert Lawrence and Steve Bartholomew were murdered by the Los Angeles police at a service station on Aug. 25, 1968.

Kumasi opines that Carter and George Jackson were like Henri Christophe and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. While they were well-versed in history, revolutionary theory and current events, both were soldiers ready to take to the battlefield. Carter made a contribution to Africa, Africans and oppressed humanity. We should remember him every Oct. 12.

Post script

In his Executive Order No. 1, “The Correct Handling of Differences Between Black Organizations,” issued in 1968, Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, then the deputy minister of defense of the Southern California Chapter at Los Angeles of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, wrote: “Let this be heard: The Black Panther Party must never be the enemy of the people. The Black Panther Party must never put itself in that other organizations can make them seem to be the enemy of Black People …

“History will show we have the correct analysis of the problem. The people will relate to the party that relates to them. Therefore, we must continue to relate to the people. Therefore, we do not get into squabbles with other Black organizations; we do not have time for this when engaging in revolution. Let this be done.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. In the 1960s, Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split, he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally, he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados) and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music, a radio show for Uhuru Radio, and writes a column, Diasporic Music, for The Burning Spear newspaper. For more information, contact him at norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

“Time for an Awakening” with Bro.Elliott, Sunday 9-13-20 guest: Activist, N.Y. Assemblyman Charles Barron

“Time for An Awakening” for Sunday 9/13/2020 our guest was Activist, 60th District of the New York Assemblyman, Charles Barron. Can “Black Radical Politics” help us control the economy of our community and more? We discussed this concept and other important topics with our guest, Mr. Charles Barron. 

Huey P. Newton, the Canadian Connection

By Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

Huey P. Newton was murdered 31 years ago in Oakland, California during the month of August. Because Black freedom fighters like George and Jonathan Jackson, Khatari Gaulden and others lost their lives during this month, revolutionaries inside the California prison system have deemed it Black August.
It is August 22, 1989 at about 8:30 a.m. the late Gwen Johnston, the co-owner of Third World Books and Crafts (Toronto’s first African Canadian owned bookstore) phones me. The news is shocking, dreadful even. Mrs.Johnston is in tears stating, “Otis they have killed Huey”.
Mrs. Johnston and her husband Lennie were huge supporters of Newton, the Black Panther Party and the struggle for African and human liberation.
When Newton returned to the United States after his exile inrevolutionary Cuba in 1977 he first landed in Toronto. He was detained in Brampton, Ontario and was represented by the progressive Euro-Canadian lawyer, Paul Copeland. Toronto’s African community supported Newton and the Panthers had several chapters in this county.
Toronto’s African community was represented by Owen Sankara Leach, Lennox Farrell, the late Sharona Hall, Mitch Holder, Bryan Hyman, Cikiah Thomas and others at the Brampton courthouse. It was covered by the Toronto dailies and even was discussed by Walter Cronkite on the CBS Evening News.
Spider Jones discusses his brief tenure with the Black Panther Party in his autobiography “Out of the Darkness: The Spider Jones Story”. Another African born in Canada Rocky Jone created a Black Panther Party chapter in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Whatever his shortcomings and there were many, Newton led many of us ideologically. For a brief moment in the history of Africans in America Newton was” the tallest tree in the forest”.
Malcolm X was the first national leader in the African community in the United States to oppose the war in Vietnam. Dr. Martin Luther King later followed Malcolm’s lead on this issue; Newton took it to the next limit. He offered troops to fight on the side of the North Vietnamese. In 1970, when was released from prison in California, his first act was to offer troops to fight in Vietnam on the side of the Vietnamese people.
On August 29, 1970 Newton wrote “In the spirit of internationalrevolutionary solidarity the Black Panther Party hereby offers to the National Liberation Front and Provisional revolutionary Government of South Vietnam an undetermined number of troops to assist you in your fight against American imperialism. It is appropriate for the Black Panther Party to take this action at this time in recognition of the fact that your struggle is also our struggle, for we recognize that our common enemy is the American imperialist who is the leader of international bourgeois domination.”
Newton also raised the questions of the liberation of women and even gays. At that time in our history this was not fashionable.
Nationalists, Pan-Africanist and even some socialist formations did not wish to touch the hot potato of gay rights. Newton did. He was the bold one. His speech given on August 15, 1970 created a firestorm in the African liberation movement. At that time I did not support Newton’s thoughts on the issue of gays and lesbians.
Newton said: “We should be careful about using those terms that might turn our friends off. The terms ‘faggot’ and ‘punk’ should be deleted from our vocabulary and, especially, we should not attach names normally designed for homosexuals to men who are enemies of the people. Homosexuals are not enemies of the people. We should try to form a working coalition with the gay liberation and women’s liberation groups. We must always handle social forces in the most appropriate manner.”
Newton was born in Oak Grove, Louisiana on February 17, 1942.
Louisiana has always been a problem for the ruling circle in the United States. Queen Mother Moore, Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, Raymond “Maasi” Hewitt, Elmer “Geronimo” Pratt, Imam Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin (H. Rap Brown), PaulMooney Richard Williams (father of Serena and Venus Willisms )and Newton all hail from Louisiana.
Queen Mother Moore from New Iberia, Carter and Hewiitt from Shreveport, Geronimo from Morgan City, Imam Al-Amin from Baton Rouge and Newton from Oak Grove.
There were 74 chapters of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) in Louisiana alone. Tony Martin pointed this out in his volume, “Race First: The Ideological and Organizational truggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association”.
In the 1950s and 1960s the militant Deacons for Defense sprang up in the pecan state. Jesse Jackson won the primaries for the Democratic Party in 1984 and 1988. Barack Hussein Obama, rode a wave of black support to victory in Louisiana.
The state has also produced its share of sell-outs, buffoons and idiots.
As we commemorate the 39th Anniversary of Black August and the 31th anniversary of Newton joining the ancestors we should remember the words of Mumia Abu-Jamal.
Says Mumia: “Huey was, it must be said, no godling, no saint. He was, however, intensely human, curious, acutely brilliant, a lover of the world’s children, an implacable foe of all the world’s oppressors.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper

“Time for an Awakening” with Bro.Elliott, Sunday 8/16/20 guest Author, Clinical Psychologist, Dr. Jerome Fox

“Time for An Awakening” for Sunday 8/16/2020 our guest was Author, Clinical Psychologist, Dr. Jerome Fox. Some of our collective views on Politics, Education, Economics, etc. suggests that an addiction to core values that inherently promote tacit acceptance of white domination. The discussion centered around his book “Addicted to White: The Oppressed in League with The Oppressor” A Shame-Based Alliance, along with solutions for our community to break addiction and move forward. In 2020, from the need to develop a new mindset in our communities, to our political and economic empowerment, the solution to these problems must come from us.

SEND IN THE CLOWNS!!! I NEED HELP.

The Black Reality Think Tank will host its national pre-election community round-table discussion on the 2020 Presidential election. Does the Trump family need to begin getting boxes from U-haul? Can a Biden/Harris victory do anything that will support an African American political-economy agenda? Is Kanye West one of the clowns Trump is calling for to ensure victory? These and other questions will be explored by our community panel.

The program host is Dr. William Rogers.

Black August, George Jackson and Marcus Garvey

“Garvey was a race FIRST man, never a race ONLY person.”

by Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

Black August 2020 is here. Africa, Africans and our allies should commemorate this historical event which began in the dungeons of California in 1979.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940) appealed to the anti-capitalist and the pro-capitalist forces in the African world. While Garvey was respectful of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) and other leaders of the 1917 Russian Revolution, he fought the U.S. Communist Party tooth and nail. Rupert Charles Lewis, the author of the book, Walter Rodney’s Intellectual and Political Thought, discusses this: Says Lewis “The Comintern out of Moscow had a resolution that the Garvey movement should be attacked and Communist Parties throughout the world including CPUSA and South African Communist Party were very hostile. They toned down their hostilities during Garvey’s imprisonment.”
Garvey supported a limited form of capitalism. However, I don’t think Bill Gates would be too fond of Garvey’s ideas. Garvey put a limit of how much profit an individual and a corporation could earn. He said an individual could earn two million dollars and a corporation only five. In 2020 this would be roughly ($60 million dollars). This would make the One Percenter bust out in laugher.
“Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense with Bobby Seale, counted Garvey among his heroes.”
Garvey’s position on race was more complex than has been presented. He was a race FIRST man, never a race ONLY person. David Brundage, Professor and Graduate Program Director, History Department, University of California, Santa Cruz reveals:
“Most surprising of all in light of the deep currents of anti-black racism that ran through the history of the Irish in America was the enthusiasm of Marcus Garvey and other African-American protest leaders for the Irish cause.”
It may come as a surprise to many that Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense with Bobby Seale, counted Garvey among his heroes. Also, the Field Marshal of the Black Panther Party, George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a student of Garvey, and at one point in his political development actually wanted to go fight in Africa. Newton and Jackson were among the anti-capitalist forces that admired Garvey.
Newton wrote about Garvey in his volume, To Die for the People. He wrote: “Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X were the two Black men of the 20th century who posed an implacable challenge to both the oppressor and the endorsed spokesmen.” Newton recognized and acknowledged that Garvey was a threat to the power structures in the USA and Western Europe. Jackson also shared Garvey’s hatred for Europe’s hand in the underdevelopment of Africa.
James Carr was one of Jackson’s allies in prison. Carr wrote in his autobiography Bad, about the political changes Jackson went through in prison:
“He (Jackson) had become convinced that there would never be any social change in this country, that everyone, Blacks included, had been too brainwashed. He believed that our only hope lay in going back to Africa to participate in the political struggles going on there. George had studied Pan-Africanism and thoroughly mastered African history while I was away. According to George, the new Black man was being formed in the struggles for national liberation going on in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea and Mozambique.”
“George Jackson also shared Garvey’s hatred for Europe’s hand in the underdevelopment of Africa.”
This was where the highest principles of justice and equality were being put into practice: “To promote his ideas, George had started giving political education classes to the Pack (a group of Black convicts joined together for survival inside Soledad prison); each dude had to read a certain amount of material by Garvey and other nationalists and different things from Pan-African magazines George had collected… Africa was on our minds, but we had plenty to worry about right where we were, too.”
Ironically, it was the African liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies plus Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) South West Africa (Namibia) and South Africa that helped turn many Africans in the West to anti-capitalist politics. Amilcar Cabral, the central leader of the struggle in Guinea-Bissau, told Africans in the West that the best thing they could do for Africans struggling against colonialism was fight their governments where they lived.
Jackson was one of many who decided to fight for Africa where they were. Walter Rodney was moved by Jackson’s politics. Rupert Charles Lewis’ book, Walter Rodney’s Intellectual and Political Thought, mentions how Rodney respected Jackson:
“Many of the lectures he gave in the US in the 1970s were concerned with the relevance of Marxism to Africa and the Third World. In his essay on George Jackson, written in Dar es Salaam, he demonstrated the merits of his approach which grasped both class and race dynamics of the Black experience in the US.”
African communities around the globe should find creative ways to commemorate all the historical events that take place in August. Emancipation Day, August 1 is an important day in the history of millions of Africa’s children. This is an important moment for those who fought against the Empire in Britain. The sun has forever set on the British Empire and U.S. Empire is declining every day. August 17 is the birthday of Garvey and it should be remembered. Also, August 7 and August 21 are important in the revolutionary calendar of African people. George Jackson’s younger brother, 17-year-old Jonathan, was killed by police gunfire on August 7, 1970 as he attempted to free James McClain, William Christmas and Ruchell Cinque Magee from a courthouse in Marin County, California. Magee was the only survivor of the Marin County slave rebellion, and is the longest serving political prisoner in the USA.
“Amilcar Cabral told Africans in the West that the best thing they could do for Africans struggling against colonialism was fight their governments where they lived.“
As we reflect on the lives of Garvey, Rodney, George and Jonathan Jackson we must also remember Magee. He can be contacted: Ruchell Magee, A-902051, CMC P.O. Box 8103, San Luis Obispo, and CA 93409. We cannot allow Ruchcell Magee to die in prison. Every effort should be made to free Magee and all political prisoners inside the United States.
In an unpublished commentary on an earlier version of this article, Richard Sutherland writes:
“Any discussion of Garvey must do so dialectically, in motion, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of Garvey and showing how subsequent generations promoted the strengths yet transcended the weaknesses.
“In the first paragraph, you pointed out the contradiction in Garvey but showed the two possibilities emanating from this contradiction (pro- or anti- capitalist) and (correctly) focused your attention on the revolutionary legacy that flowed from GARVEY. Objectively, this is the correct way of dealing with Garvey, especially if we call ourselves progressive which implies FORWARD MOVEMENT!
“As you point out, Huey and George represented the revolutionary aspects of what Garvey wasn’t, yet manifested the spiritual and emotional relevance of what Garvey was.
“Again, it was Garvey’s emphasis on Africa that stimulated future generation of revolutionary Africans to “look to Africa” for inspiration. And we did! As you’ve shown, Huey and George were inspired by revolutionaries in Africa who looked like GARVEY in the form of Amilcar Cabral and others. They adopted their Garveyism to Marxism and their Marxism to Garveyism, analysing their concrete conditions. Huey and George saw how revolutionary Africans on the Continent were struggling to realize one of Garvey’s dreams of a free and liberated Africa for Africans and incorporated some of the new and progressives ideas that were lacking in Garvey. Again, Garvey transcended. This is the dialectical negation!
“Dialectically, we start with Garvey and end with his revolutionary progeny! You did! You started with Garvey and ended with BLACK AUGUST! This is necessary to properly understand Garvey and his contribution to the further development of the PROGRESSIVE struggle of oppressed Africans and other oppressed people.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show for http://blackpower96.org/http://www.theburningspear.com/uhuru-radio and Radio Regent http://www.radioregent.com/ and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper.
For more informantion norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

Norman Richmond: on Afro-Canadian History

Remembering Garfield Belfon Fourteen Year –Old youth killed by Toronto Police in 1953


Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali




“The police become necessary in human society only at that junction of human society when it is split between those who have and those who ain’t got.” — Omali Yeshitela, Chairman African People’s Socialist Party


Before Black Lives Matter Toronto there was the Black Action Defense Committee (BADC). Sherona Hall, Dudley Laws, Charles Roach, and Lennox Farrell founded BADC). These groups were created to deal with the question of police brutally in the Canadian context. 

Little or nothing has recently been written or discussed about the shooting of a 14 year- old Black youth in Toronto in the 1950s. The front page of the Nov. 30, 1953 edition of the Toronto Daily Star could have been written in 2018. The headline reads “Charge P.C. As Boy, 14 Shot Died.” This event took place in the basement of the S.S. White Co. dental building at 250 College Street. The officer had never fired his gun on duty before, told detectives that his gun went off when a pile of packing boxes toppled toward him. The bullet hit Belfon in the neck, killing him almost instantly. Press reports repeatedly said that the police officers’ gun went off accidentally. It is noteworthy that the Star reported, “Belfon was the second person killed in four months by police gunfire. George Hurst was shot jumping over a fence in an attempted burglary in the east end. Constable Earl Snyder charged with manslaughter was freed at the preliminary hearing.”
Three other youths were found in the building at the same time as Belfon. Frank Fuzz, George Marshall and Douglas Richardson all were 16 and were charged with shop breaking. Many will know Douglas as Dougie Richardson who went on to become one of Canada’s foremost jazz artists.

Dougie Richardson
The Toronto Star’s Ashante Infantry wrote in Richardson’s 2007 obituary: “A veteran who’d worked with stellar acts such as Freddie Hubbard and the O’Jays, Richardson was best known as co-leader of the award-winning hard bop group Kollage with boyhood pal drummer Archie Alleyne.” It should be remembered that Richardson also worked with the legendary Chicago comedian/actor Bernie Mac.

Dougie’s father Sam Richardson was a legendary Track and Field athlete. At 15, in London’s Commonwealth Games in 1934, he won his gold medal in the long jump with a leap of 23 feet 8 inches (7.21 metres), and silver in the triple jump. I wrote an article about Richardson for the Globe and Mail in 1983. The late Gwen Johnston reflected on this historical event. I wrote: “Gwen Johnston, a co-proprietor of Third World Books and Crafts and Richardson’s first cousin, remembers how Toronto’s small but enthusiastic black community reacted to Richardson’s victory when he returned. Says Johnston: “You couldn’t get to him, the crowd was so great at Union Station. The community welcomed their young son home. We had a big reception for him at a place called Belvin Hall, which was on College near Spadina. I’ll never forget it.”
A historical event took place on February 15th. A Street in downtown Toronto was named Sam Richardson Way. That day also happened to be Richardson’s oldest son Norman Richardson’s 80th birthday.
he killing of Belfon was headline news in the corporate press in Toronto. Nineteen Fifty-Three was a deplorable year for African people in Canada and the people of the world – period. The year of Belfon’s death was also the same year that the immortal James Baldwin’s award winning semi-autobiographical novel Go Tell It on the Mountain was published.
The Cold War was pretty hot. Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes President of the Empire. Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union dies. The Land and Freedom Army so-called Mau Mau were on the move in Kenya. General elections were held in “British Guyana” April 27, 1953. They were the first held under universal suffrage and resulted in a victory for the People’s Progressive Party (PPP), which won 18 of the 24 seats in the new House of Assembly. Its leader, Cheddi Jagan, became Prime Minister.
In the US Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed. They were accused of conspiring to commit espionage and passing nuclear weapons secrets to Russian agents. In the United States the first color television sets go on sale, for around $1,175. The New York Yankees defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers who had Jackie Robinson and Roy Campanella on their roster. The Yankees were white, on white, in white.

            Bromely Armstrong


Bromely Armstrong came to Canada from Jamaica in 1947. Armstrong remembers the merits and demerits of living in Canada. There were issues with the police when he came here. He talks about this in Bromley Memoirs of Bromley L. Armstrong by Sheldon Taylor. Says Armstrong: “Before the Buddy Evans shooting, some police officers allegedly would abuse and brutalize minorities and First Nation’ peoples. However, in such instances care seemed to have taken by those police officers to ensure that their somewhat racially motivated actions were not fatal. This was not the case with the 1950s Belfonshooting. 
James Belfon was a barber with a business located near Huron and Dundas streets in Toronto. His son Garfield was shot as it is alleged, when he and a number of other youths were caught in the act of breaking and entering a dental warehouse in Toronto.
A Toronto Chapter of Black Lives Matter was organized in 2013. BADC was founded in 1988 in response to the killing of Lester Donaldson a Jamaican born Canadian, which was the last straw in a series of police shootings of Black men in Toronto. B. Denham Jolly came to Toronto for the first time in 1956. Jolly reflected on how the shooting of Buddy Evans, a 24 year old Nova Scotia born man affected Toronto’s Black community.
Evans was shot dead by a police officer in 1978 during a fight at a Toronto disco. This event led to an 11-week inquest and mobilized African Canadians. The government responded by creating a civilian complaints commission pilot project in the 1980s. Jolly tells the story in his award winning memoir, In The Black: My Life.
The African People’s Socialist Party has declared February 21th as the Day of the African Martyr. El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) was killed inside the Audubon Ballroom in New York City on February 21, 1965. “The African People’s Socialist Party calls on all African revolutionaries of all countries to raise high, in a revolutionary manner, the heroic memory of all our fallen martyrs, of all those in every city, village, community and country where they fell as evidence of the determination of our people to fight every battle on every front until liberty has been won.”
During this time we should also remember Toronto’s Garfield Belfon and Sandra Bland. Bland was a 28-year-old black woman who was found hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas, on July 13, 2015, three days after being arrested during a traffic stop. 
Many maintain that African people are oppressed wherever we are. Some go so as far saying that black people are the footstools of humanity.
The great Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh wrote this in 1924: “It is well-known that the Black race is the most oppressed and the most exploited of the human family. It is well-known that the spread of capitalism and the discovery of the New World had as an immediate result the rebirth of slavery. What everyone does not perhaps know is that after sixty-five years of so-called emancipation, American Negroes still endure atrocious moral and material sufferings, of which the most cruel and horrible is the custom of lynching.”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show for http://blackpower96.org/http://www.theburningspear.com/uhuru-radio and Radio Regent http://www.radioregent.com/ and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper.
For more informantion norman.o.richmond@gmail.com

Norman Otis Richmond: “Black Power in the Great White North: a report from Toronto, Canada”

Dr. Matsemela Odom talks with Jalali, also known as Norman Otis Richmond about:

  • COVID-19 and colonial violence against Africans in Canada
  • History of the African liberation movement and the struggle for African unity in Canada
  • Revolutionary international African culture

Jalali was born in Louisiana and raised in Los Angeles, California.  He moved to Canada in the late-1960s where he became an early leader in the African Liberation Movement in Canada.  

He’s dedicated his life to revolutionary cultural work. An accomplished musician himself and a musical historian, he has worked with a host of musicians such as Bob Marley, Abbey Lincoln, Hugh Masekela, and Fela Kuti. 

Jalali is the host and producer of the “Diasporic Music” show

He is a prolific writer on African politics and culture, widely published including in the Pambazuka News, the San Francisco Bay View, the Black Agenda Report, CounterPunch and The Burning Spear newspaper, where he has a regular column.

Black Owned Bookstores in the United States

131 Black Owned Bookstores Found (sorted by state, city, name)

1 – Pyramid Art Books & Custom Framing
1001 Wright Avenue, Suite C
Little Rock, AR 72206
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 501-372-5824
Email: pyramidartbookscustomframing@gmail.com
Opened in: 1988
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (7)

2 – Nubian Nook
Court Street Hamilton
Bermuda, BM
Owner/Proprietor: Rosheena Beek
Phone: 1 441-516-8258
Email: mommysays@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-05-19 (174)

3 – Ethnic Notions Bookstore
433 Solano Dr
Benicia, CA 94510
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 707-334-3060
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (10)

4 – Smiley’s Bookstore
940 East Dominguez Suite K
Carson, CA 90746
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (310) 324-8444
Email: info@SmileysBooks.org
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2014-04-04 (13)

5 – Hanna’s Ethnic Bookseller
240 Blue Mountain Way
Claremont, CA 91711
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 909-626-5051
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (11)

6 – Zahra’s Books and Things
900 North La Brea Ave
Inglewood, CA 90302
Owner/Proprietor: Renee Mendscole
Phone: 310-330-1300
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (14)

7 – Shades of Afrika Bookstore
1001 E 4th St.
Long Beach , CA 90802
Owner/Proprietor: Sista Renee Quarles
Phone: (562) 436-2210
Email:
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (140)

8 – Eso Won Bookstore
4327 Degnan Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90008
Owner/Proprietor: James Fugate and Thomas Hamilton
Phone: (323) 290-1048
Email: jmfugate@msn.com
Opened in: 1990
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (4)

9 – Zambezi Bazaar
3347 W 43rd Street
Los Angeles, CA 90008
Owner/Proprietor: Jackie Ryan
Phone: (323) 299-6383
Email:
Opened in: 1990
Last updated: 2016-04-12 (135)

10 – Ashay by the Bay
1411 Webster Street
Oakland, CA 94612
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah Day
Phone: 1-844-543-7732
Email: ashaybythebayceo@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-06-05 (175)

11 – Marcus Books (Oakland)
3900 Martin Luther King Jr. Way
Oakland, CA 94609
Owner/Proprietor: Johnson Family
Phone: (510) 652-2344
Email: info@marcusbooksoakland.com
Opened in: 1960
Last updated: 2017-06-05 (12)

12 – D3 Comic Book Spot
2148 Hilltop Mall Rd
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor: Darren Macon
Phone: 510-283-5051
Email: d3comicbookspot@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2020-06-04 (211)

13 – The Multicultural Children’s Book Store
1116 Hilltop Mall Drive
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor: Tamara
Phone: (510) 422-5304
Email: multiculturalbookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-02-04 (206)

14 – West County READS Multicultural Children’s Book Store
2325 Hilltop Mall Drive
Richmond, CA 94806
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (510) 422-5304
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-04-25 (189)

15 – Carol’s Books
1913 Del Paso Blvd
Sacramento, CA 95815
Owner/Proprietor: Carol
Phone: (916) 646-6525
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-06-04 (9)

16 – Underground Books
2814 35th Street
Sacramento, CA 95817
Owner/Proprietor: Georgia West “Mother Rose”
Phone: 916-737-3333
Email: gwest@underground-books.com
Opened in: 2002
Last updated: 2017-02-02 (110)

17 – Black Books Galore, Inc.
65 High Ridge Rd., #407
Stamford, CT 06905
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-08-19 (15)

18 – DC Bookdiva’s Mobile Bookstore
Various Locations in DC
Washington, DC
Owner/Proprietor: T. Short
Phone:
Email: dcbookdiva@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (98)

19 – MahoganyBooks
1231 Good Hope Rd SE
Washington, DC 20020
Owner/Proprietor: Derrick and Ramunda Young
Phone: 703-730-3873
Email: customerservice@mahoganybooks.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-11-23 (177)

20 – Sankofa Video Books & Cafe
2714 Georgia Ave.,NW
Washington, DC 20001
Owner/Proprietor: Shirikiana Gerima
Phone: 202-234-4755
Email: sankofa@gmail.com
Opened in: 1982
Last updated: 2012-03-24 (86)

21 – The Children Of The Sun
2802 Georgia Ave NW
Washington, DC 20001
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 202-299-0279
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-06-10 (147)

22 – Loyalty (Petworth) Bookstore
843 Upshur NW
Washington, DC, DC 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Hannah Oliver Depp
Phone: (240) 863-2087
Email: hannah@loyaltybookstores.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (208)

23 – MeJah Books & Crafts
Holly Oak Plaza, 2099A Philadelphia Pike
Claymont, DE 19703
Owner/Proprietor: Ms. Emlyn Q. DeGannes
Phone: 302-793-3424
Email: mejahinc@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2016-03-07 (16)

24 – Chez Alpha Books
Behind YumYums-Ouakam
Cite Africa Dakar, Senegal, DKR
Owner/Proprietor: Angela Franklin-Faye
Phone: +221 33 8206359
Email: maizie@chezalphabks.com
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2019-11-09 (203)

25 – Pyramid Books

Boynton Beach, FL
Owner/Proprietor: Denise & Shaka Akbar
Phone: 561-731-4422
Email: pyramidbks@aol.com
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2019-07-23 (91)

26 – Dare Books
245 N. U.S. Highway 17-92
Longwood, FL 32750
Owner/Proprietor: Desmond A. Reid
Phone: 407-673-3273
Email: DesmondR@darebooks.com
Opened in: 1982
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (118)

27 – The Gathering Awareness and Book Center
314 N Devillers St
Pensacola, FL 32501
Owner/Proprietor: Georgia Blackmon
Phone: (850) 438-4882
Email: awarenessg@thegathering.gccoxmail.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2017-12-03 (179)

28 – Cultured Books
833 22nd St. S.
St. Petersburg, FL 33712
Owner/Proprietor: Lorielle J. Hollaway
Phone: (727) 328-4822
Email: stpetereads@culturedbooks.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-12-18 (181)

29 – Best Richardson African Diaspora Literature & Culture Museum
1463 Tampa Park Plaza
Tampa, FL 33605
Owner/Proprietor: Skip Richardson, Gigi Best-Richardson
Phone: (813) 944-2112
Email: bradlcmuseum@gmail.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2020-06-08 (193)

30 – Présence Africaine
25 bis rue des Ecoles 75005
Paris, FR 75005
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: +33 (0)1 43 54 15 88
Email: presaf@club-internet.fr
Opened in: 1949
Last updated: 2019-07-27 (196)

31 – Medu Bookstore, Greenbriar Mall
2841 Greenbriar Parkway
Atlanta, GA 30331
Owner/Proprietor: Nia Damali
Phone: 404-346-3263
Email: nia@medubooks.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (22)

32 – Sisters Bookshop
209 Edgewood Ave S.E.
Atlanta, GA 30303
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (404) 585-6243
Email: svbbooks@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-04-04 (138)

33 – The Shrine of the Black Madonna
946 Ralph D. Abernathy Blvd SW
Atlanta, GA 30310
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 404-549-8676
Email: buyer@shrinebookstore.com
Opened in: 1970
Last updated: 2019-11-06 (25)

34 – The Listening Tree
2308 Candler Rd.
Decatur, GA 30032
Owner/Proprietor: Omar and Kimberly Finley
Phone:
Email: listeningtreebooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 2014
Last updated: 2019-11-08 (204)

35 – Black Dot Cultural Center
6984 Main St.
Lithonia, GA 30058
Owner/Proprietor: Adigun Kazemde Ajamu
Phone: 404-519-8107
Email: info@blackdotcc.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-12-13 (191)

36 – Book Boutique
2929 Turner Hill Rd
Lithonia, GA 30038
Owner/Proprietor: Rodney Daniel and Monique S. Hall
Phone: 770-484-4595
Email: bookboutiqueatl@gmail.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2018-12-10 (182)

37 – All Things Inspiration Giftique

Mableton, GA
Owner/Proprietor: LaVonya Tensley
Phone:
Email: allthingsinspirationgift@gmail.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (201)

38 – NuBian Books
1540 Southlak Pkwy, Ste 7A
Morrow, GA 30260
Owner/Proprietor: Marcus Williams.
Phone: 678-422-6120
Email: marcus3x@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1999
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (24)

39 – Lushena Bookstore
607 Country Club Drive, Unit E
Bensenville, IL 60106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 630-238-8708
Email: lushenabooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2012-03-24 (31)

40 – Da Book Joint
2311 E. 71 St
Chicago, IL
Owner/Proprietor: Verlean Singletary
Phone: 773-655-3146
Email: verlean@dabookjoint.com
Opened in: 2007
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (124)

41 – Frontline Bookstore
5206 S Harper Ave
Chicago, IL 60615
Owner/Proprietor: Sekou
Phone: (773) 288-7718
Email:
Opened in: 1987
Last updated: 2014-03-14 (136)

42 – Semicolon Bookstore & Gallery
515 N Halsted St
Chicago, IL 60642
Owner/Proprietor: DL Mullen
Phone: 312-877-5170
Email: info@semicolonchi.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-09-11 (199)

43 – The Underground Bookstore
1727 E. 87th Street
Chicago, IL 60617
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 773-768-8869
Email: TheUndergroundBookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (121)

44 – Black Expression Book Source
9500 5 Western Ave
Evergreen Park, IL 60805
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 708-424-4338
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (28)

45 – Afriware Books, Co
1701 S. 1st Ave., Suite 503
Maywood, IL 60153
Owner/Proprietor: Nzingha Nommo
Phone: 708-223-8081
Email: afriwarebooks@afriwarebooks.com
Opened in: 1993
Last updated: 2015-12-13 (27)

46 – The Brain Lair Bookstore
714 E Jefferson Blvd
South Bend, IN 46617
Owner/Proprietor: Kathy M Burnette, Book Dean
Phone: 574-400-5572
Email:
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2018-07-06 (190)

47 – Bookophilia
92 Hope Road
Kingston, JA
Owner/Proprietor: David Thomas
Phone: 1 876-978-5248
Email: info@bookophilia.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2016-03-27 (163)

48 – The Wild Fig Books
726 N. Limestone
Lexington, KY 40508
Owner/Proprietor: Ronald Davis & Crystal Wilkinson
Phone: 859-381-8802
Email: wildfigworkercooperative@gmail.com
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2020-06-03 (89)

49 – Akoma Novelties & Books
1401 Triplett St. Suite. B
Owensboro, KY 42303
Owner/Proprietor: Brittney Odom & Sharkoo Barrett
Phone: (812) 463-2427
Email: info.akomalife@gmail.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2019-07-08 (192)

50 – Between the Lines Bookstore
4242 Government Street Suite #113
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Owner/Proprietor: Kim Knight
Phone: (225) 389-6392
Email: betweenthelinebooks@icloud.com
Opened in: 2014
Last updated: 2015-06-09 (151)

51 – SanKofa With Me
7720 Linwood
Caddo, LA 71106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 318-560-1136
Email: sankofawithme@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-12-26 (184)

52 – Word of Life Christian Bookstores
6321 West Blvd.
Los Angeles, LA 90043
Owner/Proprietor: Jonathan Curtiss
Phone: 323-295-8223
Email: jon@shopwordoflife.com
Opened in: 1961
Last updated: 2020-06-11 (214)

53 – Community Book Center
2523 Bayou Road
New Orleans, LA 70119
Owner/Proprietor: Vera Warren-Williams
Phone: 504-948-7323
Email:
Opened in: 1983
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (34)

54 – Nubian Cultural Outreach Center
7720 Linwood Ave
Shreveport, LA 71106
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (318) 686-4477
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (139)

55 – New Beacon Books
76 Stroud Green Road
United Kingdom, LN N4 3EN
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: +44 20 7272 4889
Email: newbeaconbooksuk@gmail.com
Opened in: 1966
Last updated: 2019-07-27 (195)

56 – The Jazzhole
168 Awolowo Road
Ikoyi, LOS
Owner/Proprietor: Kunle Tejuosho
Phone: +234 706 064 8580
Email:
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2019-11-10 (205)

57 – Frugal Bookstore
57 Warren Street Roxbury, MA 02119
Roxbury, MA 02119
Owner/Proprietor: Leonard Egerton
Phone: 617-541-1722
Email: frugal_books@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2019-11-17 (119)

58 – Olive Tree Books-n-Voices
97 Hancock Street
Springfield, MA 01109
Owner/Proprietor: Zee Johnson
Phone: 413-737-6400
Email: olivetreebooks@msn.com
Opened in: 2004
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (42)

59 – MasterWorks Books
2703 Curry Drive
Adelphi, MD 20783
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 301-422-2168
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (36)

60 – Everyone’s Place
1356 W. North Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21217
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 410-728-0877
Email:
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (35)

61 – Expressions Books and Frames
222 N Paca Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (410) 783-0195
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (166)

62 – Jay Books
400 W Lexington Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2016-05-13 (164)

63 – Vision Christian Bookstore
10398 Piscataway Road
Clinton, MD 20735
Owner/Proprietor: Robert & Cheryl Woodard
Phone: 301-234-0035
Email: armorofgod@comcaat.net
Opened in: 2011
Last updated: 2017-12-21 (183)

64 – Wisdom Book Center
5116 Liberty Heights Ave.
Gwynn Oak, MD 21207
Owner/Proprietor: Bro. Tehuti & Bro. Elliot
Phone: (410) 664-1946
Email: wisdombookcenter@verizon.net
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2016-01-27 (162)

65 – Cartel Cafe & Books Store
5011 Indian Head Highway
Oxon Hill, MD 20745
Owner/Proprietor: T. Styles
Phone: 240 724-7225
Email: cartelcafeandbooks@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (120)

66 – Loyalty Books
823 Ellsworth Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Hannah Oliver Depp
Phone: 443-466-6773
Email: hannah@loyaltybookstores.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (207)

67 – Silver Spring Books
938 Bonifant Street
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Owner/Proprietor: Cynthia Parker
Phone: 301-587-7484
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-12-06 (159)

68 – Urban Knowledge Bookstore
3731 Branch Avenue
Temple Hills, MD 20748
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (301) 702-0717
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2016-05-13 (165)

69 – Source Booksellers
4240 Cass Ave Suite 105
Detroit, MI 48201
Owner/Proprietor: Janet Jones
Phone: 313-832-1155
Email: info@sourcebooksdetroit.com
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-06-03 (146)

70 – Nandi’s Knowledge Cafe
12511 Woodward Ave
Highland Park, MI 48203
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (313) 865-1288
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-11-08 (152)

71 – Detroit Book City
24361 Greenfield Rd, Ste. 305
Southfield, MI 48075
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (248) 209-6880
Email:
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2017-12-13 (180)

72 – The Truth Bookstore
21500 Northwestern Highway, Northland Mall Store # 779
Southfield, MI 48075
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 248-557-4824
Email:
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (92)

73 – Hood Book Headquarters
20900 Dequindre Road
Warren, MI 48091
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (107)

74 – Black Stone Bookstore & Cultural Center
214 W. Michigan Ave
Ypsilanti, MI 48197
Owner/Proprietor: Kip Johnson and Carlos Franklin
Phone: (734) 961-7376
Email: info.blackstoneproject@gmail.com
Opened in: 2013
Last updated: 2020-06-07 (134)

75 – Babycake’s Book Stack

St. Paul, MN 55104
Owner/Proprietor: Zsamé Morgan
Phone: 651-321-3436
Email: zsame@babycakesbookstack.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-07-29 (221)

76 – Willa’s Books & Vinyl
1734 E 63rd Street
Kansas City, MO 64110
Owner/Proprietor: Willa Robinson
Phone: (816) 419-1051
Email: willasbooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2020-07-29 (220)

77 – Progressive Emporium & Education Center
1108 North Sarah Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63113
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (314) 875-9277
Email: progressiveemporium@yahoo.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-05-01 (144)

78 – EyeSeeMe
7827 Olive Blvd
University City, MO 63130
Owner/Proprietor: Pamela Blair
Phone: (314) 349-1122
Email: customerservice@eyeseeme.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2016-01-15 (161)

79 – Magnolia Tree Books
310 N. Magnolia Street, Suite 101A
Laurel, MS 39440
Owner/Proprietor: zaji
Phone: 601-342-0990
Email: info@magnoliatreebooks.com
Opened in: 2013
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (130)

80 – Aframerican Book Store
3226 Lake St
Omaha, NE 68111
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email: aframerican@yahoo.com
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (44)

81 – The Little Boho Bookstore
164a Broadway
Bayonne, NJ 07002
Owner/Proprietor: Sandra Dear & Rod Johnson
Phone: 2012584499
Email: info@thelittlebohobookshop.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2020-06-20 (218)

82 – La Unique African American Books & Cultural Center
111 N 6th St.
Camden, NJ 08102
Owner/Proprietor: Larry Miles
Phone: (856) 338-1958
Email: Simba@launiquebooks.net
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-04-30 (143)

83 – African American Book Store
216 1st St
Hackensack, NJ 07601
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (45)

84 – Source of Knowledge
867 Broad St
Newark, NJ 07102
Owner/Proprietor: Dexter George
Phone: (973) 824-2556
Email: sourceofknowledge867@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1998
Last updated: 2019-12-19 (157)

85 – Urban Books On Wheels
28 Old Tpke
Pleasantville, NJ 08232
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (609) 383-9100
Email: Futuredj1164@aol.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (106)

86 – Imoya Treasures, Inc
1465 Irving Street
Rahway, NJ 07065
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 732-388-4955
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (48)

87 – Janco Books
2202 W Charleston Blvd
Las Vegas, Nevada 89102, NV 89102
Owner/Proprietor: Christina Benton
Phone: 702-522-9286
Email: books@jancobookstore.comOpened
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-01-21 (185)

88 – The Lit. Bar
131 Alexander Avenue (btwn 134th St. & Bruckner Blvd)
Bronx, NY 10454
Owner/Proprietor: Noëlle Santos
Phone: (347) 955-3610
Email: thebronxreads@thelitbar.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-08-02 (197)

89 – African Record Center
1194 Nostrand Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11225
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (718) 493-4500
Email:
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-06-16 (216)

90 – Black Mind Book Boutique
610 New York Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11203
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 718-774-5800
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (52)

91 – Cafe con Libros
724 Prospect Place
Brooklyn, NY 11216
Owner/Proprietor: Kalima DeSuze
Phone: 347-460-2838
Email: info@cafeconlibrosbk.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-02-02 (186)

92 – Official Connection
312 Livingston Street
Brooklyn, NY 11217
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (718) 488-0006
Email: official.connection@hotmail.com
Opened in: 2010
Last updated: 2015-08-13 (142)

93 – Zawadi Books
1382 Jefferson Avenue
Buffalo, NY 14208
Owner/Proprietor: Kenneth and Sharon Holley
Phone: (716) 903-6740
Email: jordanholley@aol.com
Opened in: 2012
Last updated: 2017-12-12 (150)

94 – Grandma’s Place
84 West 120th Street
Harlem, NY 10027
Owner/Proprietor: Grandma Dawn
Phone: (212) 360-6776
Email: grandmasplaceinc@email.biz
Opened in: 2009
Last updated: 2015-01-25 (154)

95 – Blenheim Hill Books
698 Main Street, Suite A
Hobart, NY 13788
Owner/Proprietor: Cheryl Clarke Barbara Balliet &
Phone: 607-538-9222
Email: blenheimbooks1@gmail.com
Opened in: 2005
Last updated: 2017-03-10 (172)

96 – Becoming Gods Answer Bookstore
1832 Madison Ave (between 119th and 120th st)
New York, NY 10035
Owner/Proprietor: Rev Joyce Eady
Phone: 646-215-6119
Email: c.brown@becominggodsanswerbookstore.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (102)

97 – Sister’s Uptown Bookstore
1942 Amsterdam Avenue (at 156th Street)
New York, NY 10032
Owner/Proprietor: Janifer P. Wilson
Phone: 212-862-3680
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (58)

98 – Mood Makers Books & Art Gallery Village Gate Square
274 N. Goodman St.
Rochester, NY 14607
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 877.223.1730
Email: sales@moodmakersbooks.com or info@moodmakersbooks.
Opened in: 1994
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (56)

99 – Smith & Hannon Book Store
50 E Freedom Way
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (513) 641-2700
Email: info@smithandhannonbookstore.com
Opened in: 2003
Last updated: 2019-09-11 (200)

100 – A Cultural Exchange
12624 Larchmere Blvd.
Cleveland, OH 44120
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah McHamm
Phone: 216-229-8300
Email: aculturalexchange@fsbcglobal.net
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (64)

101 – The African Book Shelf
1324Q Euclid Ave
Cleveland, OH 44112
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 216-681-6511
Email:
Opened in: 2000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (61)

102 – Black Art Plus
43 Parsons Ave.
Columbus, OH 43215
Owner/Proprietor: Mike Miller
Phone: 614-469-9980
Email: blackartplus@att.net
Opened in: 1987
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (62)

103 – The Book Suite
887 E. Long Street
Columbus, OH 43203
Owner/Proprietor: James
Phone: 614-252-4552
Email: james@thebooksuite.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (112)

104 – Ujamaa Book Store
1493 E Livingston Ave
Columbus, OH 43205
Owner/Proprietor: Mustafaa Shabazz
Phone: 614-258-4633
Email: juneteenthohio@fuse.net or smustafaa@aol.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (66)

105 – Nappy Roots Books
3705 Springlake Drive
Oklahoma City, OK 73111
Owner/Proprietor: Camille Landry
Phone: 405-896-0203
Email: camille.landry@gmail.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2020-06-04 (212)

106 – Fulton Street Books & Coffee
210 W Latimer Street
Tulsa, OK 74106
Owner/Proprietor: Onikah Asamoa-Caesar
Phone: 918-932-8646
Email: info@fultonstreet918.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2020-06-09 (213)

107 – Mocha Books
5525 E 51ST STREET, SUITE 205
Tulsa, OK 74135
Owner/Proprietor: McGlory Shionka
Phone: 918-236-9019
Email: mochabooks@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2019-11-03 (202)

108 – Knowledge Bookstore
177 Queen Street West
Brampton, ON L6Y 1M5
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 905-459-9875
Email: sales@knowledgebookstore.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2014-12-08 (153)

109 – The Black Reserve Bookstore
319 W. Main Street, Suite #6
Lansdale, PA 19446
Owner/Proprietor: Anwar Muhammad
Phone: 267-221-3090
Email: theblackreservebookstore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2018-03-24 (188)

110 – Books & Stuff
23 W Maplewood Mall
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone:
Email: 215-844-0844
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2017-09-24 (176)

111 – Color Book Gallery
6353 Germantown Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor: Deborah Gary
Phone: 215-844-4200
Email:
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-09-11 (156)

112 – Hakim’s Bookstore and Gift Shop
210 S 52nd St
Philadelphia, PA 19139
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (215) 474-9495
Email: bookstorehakims@gmail.com
Opened in: 1959
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (70)

113 – Harriett’s Bookshop
258 E. Girard Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19125
Owner/Proprietor: Jeannine Cook
Phone:
Email: info@harriettsbookshop.com
Opened in: 2020
Last updated: 2020-04-17 (209)

114 – Uncle Bobbie’s Coffee & Books
5445 Germantown Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19144
Owner/Proprietor: Marc Lamont Hill
Phone: (215) 403-7058
Email:
Opened in: 2017
Last updated: 2017-11-27 (178)

115 – The Tiny Bookstore
1130 Perry Highway, Suite 106
Pittsburgh, PA 15237
Owner/Proprietor: Lea Bickerton
Phone: 412-585-2651
Email: info@tinybookspgh.com
Opened in: 2018
Last updated: 2020-06-15 (215)

116 – Turning Page Bookshop
216 Saint James Ave Ste F
Goose Creek, SC 29445
Owner/Proprietor: VaLinda Miller
Phone: 843-501-7223
Email:
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 2020-07-01 (194)

117 – Malcolm X Center for Self-Determination
321 W. Antrim Drive
Greenville, SC 29606
Owner/Proprietor: Efia Nwangaza
Phone: (864) 239-0470
Email: wmxp955@gmail.com
Opened in: 1991
Last updated: 2014-06-28 (149)

118 – The African Place
581 N 3rd St
Memphis, TN 38105
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: (901) 524-0800
Email: theafricanplace@aol.com
Opened in: 0000
Last updated: 2015-11-02 (158)

119 – Alkebu-Lan Images Bookstore & Gift Shop
2721 Jefferson Street
Nashville, TN 37208
Owner/Proprietor: Yusef Harris
Phone: 615-321-4111
Email: alkebulanimages@gmail.com
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2015-01-07 (73)

120 – Pan-African Connection
828 Fourth Ave.
Dallas, TX 75226
Owner/Proprietor: Akwete Tyehimba (CEO)
Phone: 214-943-8262
Email: panafric@airmail.net
Opened in: 1989
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (96)

121 – Enda’s Booktique
428 N. Main Street
Duncanville, TX 75116
Owner/Proprietor: E Jean Pemberton Jones
Phone: 972-460-6362
Email: endasbooktique@gmail.com
Opened in: 2019
Last updated: 0000-00-00 (210)

122 – The Dock Bookshop
6637 Meadowbrook Dr.
Fort Worth, TX 76112
Owner/Proprietor: Donya Craddock
Phone: 817-457-5700
Email: thedockbookshop@gmail.com
Opened in: 2008
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (6)

123 – African Imports Houston
12300 North Fwy Ste 147 Greenspoint Mall
Houston, TX 77060
Owner/Proprietor: Obi
Phone: (281) 875-0056
Email: donbasel@yahoo.com
Opened in: 1997
Last updated: 2014-03-21 (131)

124 – Black World Books
500 N Fort Hood Street Suite 504
Killeen, TX 76541
Owner/Proprietor: Maeva Jackson
Phone: (254) 554-5559
Email: info@blackworldbooks.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2017-04-17 (173)

125 – Harambee Books and Artworks
1132 Prince Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 703-299-2591
Email: info@harambeebooks.org
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2018-02-05 (187)

126 – Riches In Reading
912 Canal Dr.
Chesapeake, VA 23323
Owner/Proprietor: Kenyatta Ingram
Phone: 929-445-7427
Email: info@richesinreading.com
Opened in: 2015
Last updated: 2017-01-04 (171)

127 – Urban Moon Books: The Indie Author Outlet
Chesapeake Square Mall, 4200 Portsmouth Blvd
Chesapeake, VA 23321
Owner/Proprietor: Fanita Pendleton
Phone: 757-465-3858
Email: urbanmoonbooksandmore@gmail.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2016-05-26 (167)

128 – Books and Crannies
50 E Church St Ste 4
Martinsville, VA 24112
Owner/Proprietor: DeShanta Hairston
Phone: 276-403-4380
Email: staff@booksandcranniesva.com
Opened in: 2016
Last updated: 2020-06-24 (219)

129 – House of Consciousness
633 West 35th Street
Norfolk, VA 23508
Owner/Proprietor:
Phone: 757-314-1943
Email: hocbulletin@gmail.com
Opened in: 1986
Last updated: 2015-03-17 (137)

130 – Timbuktu Bookstore
3601 East Ocean View Avenue, Unit C.
Norfolk, VA 23518
Owner/Proprietor: Bro. Furqaan S. Ali
Phone: 757-374-4591
Email:
Opened in: 2003
Last updated: 2014-04-06 (116)

131 – Positive Vibes
6220 B Indian River Rd.
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
Owner/Proprietor: A Partnership
Phone: 757-523-1399
Email:
Opened in: 1992
Last updated: 2014-03-19 (82)

SEE MORE AT : https://aalbc.com/bookstores/list.php

Natural Psychology and a Science of Human Transformation”

Elders of SANKOFA Council

“Seeing Ourselves Through the Lens of Our Creator and Ancestors” Black/AfriKan Developmental PsychologyProgram

A conversation with the Elders of SANKOFA Council of Milwaukee Guest: Baba Charles Robinson JD one of our Elders with over 45 years of experience serving the Milwaukee Community.

Host Alfonzo Watkins MSE, LPC

contact information: wakeupprogram@gmail.com

The Elders of Sankofa Counsil Radio Program is an afilliation of The Black Reality Think Tank Radio Network.

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